24.2- 24.519 cards

Tagged as: biology, literature, earth, history, microbiology, biochemistry, fitness, medical, medicine, nursing, cosmetology

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1

Descent with modification

The phrase used by Darwin to describe his hypothesis of evolution by natural selection.

2

Fossil

Any trace of an organism that existed in the past. Includes tracks, burrows, fossilized bones, casts, etc.

3

Fossil record

All of the fossils that have been found anywhere on Earth and that have been formally described in the scientific literature.

4

Sedimentary rocks

A type of rock formed by gradual accumulation of sediment, as in riverbeds and on the ocean floor. Most fossils are found in sedimentary rocks.

5

geologic time scale

The sequence of eons, epochs, and periods used to describe the geologic history of Earth.

6

Extinct

Said of a species that has died out

7

Transitional form

A fossil species or population with traits that are intermediate between older and younger species.

8

Vestigial trait

Any rudimentary structure of unknown or minimal function that is homologous to functioning structures in other species. Vestigial traits are thought to reflect evolutionary history.

9

homology

Similarity among organisms of different species due to their inheritance from a common ancestor. Features that exhibit such similarity (e.g., DNA sequences, proteins, body parts) are said to be homologous.

10

genetic homology

Similarities in DNA sequences or amino acid sequences that are due to inheritance from a common ancestor.

11

Developmental homology

A similarity in embryonic form, or in the fate of embryonic tissues, that is due to inheritance from a common ancestor.

12

morphology

The shape and appearance of an organism’s body and its component parts.

13

Structural homology

Similarities in organismal structures (e.g., limbs, shells, flowers) that are due to inheritance from a common ancestor.

14

Natural selection

The process by which individuals with certain heritable traits tend to produce more surviving offspring than do individuals without those traits, often leading to a change in the genetic makeup of the population. A major mechanism of evolution.

15

Evolution

(1) The theory that all organisms on Earth are related by common ancestry and that they have changed over time, predominantly via natural selection. (2) Any change in the genetic characteristics of a population over time, especially, a change in allele frequencies.

16

Adaptation

Any heritable trait that increases the fitness of an individual with that trait, compared with individuals without that trait, in a particular environment.

17

Natural experiment

A situation in which groups to be compared are created by an unplanned, natural change in conditions rather than by manipulation of conditions by researchers

18

Acclimation

Gradual physiological adjustment of an organism to new environmental conditions that occur naturally or as part of a laboratory experiment.

19

Genetic correlation

A type of evolutionary constraint in which selection on one trait causes a change in another trait as well; may occur when the same gene(s) affect both traits