335 Midterm50 cards

Tagged as: computer science, nursing, physics, education, sat, biology, marketing, algebra, math, music, gmat, medical, medicine

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1

decision making process steps (5)

Identify Problem Develop Alternatives Establish Criteria Evaluate Alternatives Resolve Decision

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research process steps (4)

Determine research problem Select research design Execute research design Communicate research results

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Exploratory research (qualitative)

-used to gain insights and ideas -help generate hypotheses -increase familiarity -used for a problem in which little is known

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Types of qualitative research

-Focus Groups -Nominal Groups (hybrid) -Depth Interviews -Projective Method

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Projective method

encourage respondents to reveal their own feelings, thoughts and behaviors by shifting the focus away from the individual through use of indirect tasks/ questions

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Depth interview

interviews with people knowledgeable about the general subject -expensive and time consuming

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nominal groups

hybrid of survey and focus group -moderator less able to influence group, no focus effect -limited application, acquiring subjects

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Focus Group

clarifying problem, generating hypothesis, new product impressions -creativity, hard to measure phenomena -moderator can influence, acquiring subjects, focus effect

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Focus effect

people get side tracked, job of moderator is to keep group on track

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Measurement

process of assigning numbers or labels to persons, objects, or events according to specific rules

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What do we measure (constructs)

behaviors (actions/ purchases) states of being (demographics) states of mind (attitudes, beliefs, awareness)

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Hypothetical constructs

phenomena not directly observable (attitudes, awareness, intentions)

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What must we know in order to measure?

rules for assignments of numbers/ symbols mathematical properties (scales) applicable statistical operations

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Four basic levels of measurement

nominal scales ordinal scales interval scales ratio scales

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Nominal scales

category; mutually exclusive, all data will fit into one and only one category and all data will fit somewhere on the scale -numbers cannot be ordered, added or divided -ex. gender, yes or no -mode, frequency distribution -chi square

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Ordinal scales

labeling characteristic of nominal scales PLUS the ability to order data, can be used for rank order, but should not assume the distance between each rank is equal, equal interval assumption -ex. education, toothpaste preference -median, percentile

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Interval scales

ordinal scales PLUS equal intervals between points to show relative amounts, ratios do not work -ex. SAT's, temperature -mean, range, standard deviation -t and z tests, correlation, ANOVA

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Ratio scales

interval PLUS a meaningful absolute zero, magnitudes can be compared arithmetically -ex. distance, age, weight, height -mean, range, standard deviation -t and z test, correlation, ANOVA

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Measurement scales and the characteristics

Nominal- description Ordinal- description, order Interval- description, order, distance Ratio- description. order, distance, origin

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Likert Scale

degree of agreement or disagreement with a series of statements

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Semantic Differential Scale

check the cell between a set of bipolar adjectives that best describes their feelings toward the object of study

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Stapel Scale

express the degree of positive or negative feelings using counterbalancing positive and negative numbers

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Rank-Order Scale

compare two or more items and rank each item; easy to use and understand - widely used in marketing

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Constant Sum Scale

respondent asked to divide a certain number of points between attributes -100 points between 2 items

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Satisfaction Scales

delighted- terrible scale percentage scale need-satisfaction dissatisfaction scale

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Graphic Ranking Scale

indicate on a graphic continuum using symbols, their feelings or attitudes

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validity= ALWAYS reliable

validity= ALWAYS reliable

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many scales can be reliable, but NOT valid

many scales can be reliable, but NOT valid

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CANNOT be valid if unreliable

can be reliable and invalid

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Reliability

Consistency

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Test- Retest Reliability

Applying the same instrument to the same subjects a second time

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Alternative (parallel) Reliability

involves measuring the same subjects with different instruments that are designed to be as nearly alike as possible

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Validity

extent to which a test measures what we actually wish to measure

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Content validity

assessed the extent to which the measuring instrument provides adequate coverage of the investigative questions

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Criterion- related validity

assesses the success of a measurement scale for prediction (predictive) or estimation (concurrent); differ only in time perspective

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Predictive

assesses the extent to which results from the measuring instrument may be used to predict future behavior -GMAT

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Concurrent

assesses the extent to which results from the measuring instrument may be used to estimate current behavior -medical tests

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Construct validity

assesses the extent of how well the measuring instrument captures the construct, concept or trait it is suppose to be measuring -turnover, trust

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Convergent validity

the degree to which scores on one scale correlate with scores on other scales designed to assess the same construct

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Discriminant validity

degree to which scores on one scale do not correlate with scores on other scales designed to assess different constructs

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As internal validity increases...

external validity decreases

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Internal Validity

refers to the extent to which you eliminate the effects of factors that obscure or confound the relationships under study -impact of price changes on sales

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External Validity

refers to the extent to which the causal relationships measured in an experiment can be generalized to outside persons, setting and times -field experiments conducted outside the laboratory

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Quantitative Research

2 choices: communication or observation communication: involves using questionnaires and surveys observation: scrutinizing the situation of interest with relevant facts, actions or behaviors recorded

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Questionnaire and Survey contact methods

in-person, face-to-face online

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Causal Research

the value of one variable causes or determines the value of another variable, in attempt to establish linkage between them

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Dependent Variable

symbol or concept expected to be explained or affected by an independent variable

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Independent Variable

variable that the can be manipulated, changed or alter

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O

measurement/ observation

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X

treatment/ exposure