A&P II Digestive60 cards

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1

Alimentary canal

food tube

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Accessory organs of Digestive

create, store, release digestive enzymes

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Digestion

breaking down of food

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Physical digestion

biting, chewing, crunching, grinding, etc

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Chemical digestion

enzyme action

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Absorption

transport of digested nutrients into blood stream

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Wall structure

Mucosa (mucous membrane), Submucosa, Muscular layer, Serosa (serous membrane)

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Mucosa (mucous membrane)

inner epithelium that secretes, absorbs, and protects

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Submucosa

connective tissue with numerous blood vessels, nerves, lymph vessels.

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Muscular layer – two layers

Inner circular fibers, Outer longitudinal fibers

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Inner circular fibers – Outer longitudinal fibers –

squeezes closed like a sphincter, shortens

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Serosa (serous membrane)

visceral peritoneum and connective tissue that moistens and lubricates

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Movements

Mixing food, Propelling food forward through the system

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Innervation

Sympathetic nerves inhibit digestion. Parasympathetic nerves increase activity.

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Mastication

physically grinding and mixing with saliva

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Tongue

Attached with frenulum, Covered with papillae, Root of tongue covered by lingual tonsils

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Palate: Hard palate, Soft palate, Uvula, Palatine tonsils, Pharyngeal tonsils

Mastication, Swallowing, Covers nasal cavity during swallowing, On sides, Above back of palate

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Teeth

Hardest structures in the body

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Teeth are not considered bones because they have

Two proteins not found in bones and their structure is different.

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Salivary glands

secrete saliva

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Saliva is a mixture of

Serous, Mucous

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Serous

contain digestive enzyme amylase –splits starch into disaccharides

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Mucous

binds and lubricates

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Parotid glands

largest, between cheek skin and masseter muscle

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Submandibular glands

floor of the mouth open near frenulum

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Sublingual glands

smallest, more viscous secretion

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Pharynx and Esophagus

Function in deglutition (swallowing), not digestion

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Pharynx

Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx

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Nasopharynx

connects nasal cavity to back of mouth

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Oropharynx

back of mouth

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Laryngopharynx

below mouth to larynx

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3 stages in deglutition

Voluntary, Involuntary, Peristalsis

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Voluntary, Involuntary, Peristalsis

tongue pushes bolus to back of mouth; swallowing reflex, nasal cavity and trachea close; wavelike motion takes food down esophagus

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Esophagus

Straight, collapsible tube, 25 cm long, remains closed until deglutition. Carries food to stomach. Lower esophageal sphincter (cardiac sphincter) closes opening to stomach.

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Stomach Parts

Cardiac region, Fundic region, Body, Pyloric region, Pyloric sphincter, Rugae

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Cardiac region – Fundic region – Body – Pyloric region – Pyloric sphincter – Rugae –

entrance to stomach, temporary storage at top of stomach, main functioning part, exit of stomach, point of no return, folds that mix and grind food

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Gastric juice

Pepsin, HCl, Lipase, Intrinsic factor

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Pepsin – HCl – Lipase – Intrinsic factor –

begins to break down proteins; acid, converts pepsinogen to pepsin; breaks down lipids; required for absorption of B12 vitamins

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3 phases of secretion of stomach

Cephalic phase, Gastric phase, Intestinal phase

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Cephalic phase – Gastric phase – Intestinal phase –

Sight, taste, smell, or thought of food triggers parasympathetic reflexes; food in stomach causes release of gastrin, stimulates gastric juice secretion; food in intestine causes release of gastrin, stimulates gastric juice secretion.

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Pancreas

Digestive function is exocrine in nature.

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Pancreas excretes digestive enzymes from?

Acini cells into the duodenum of the small intestine.

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Enzymes of Pancreas

Pancreatic amylase; Pancreatic lipase; Nuclease; Trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase

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Pancreatic amylase – Pancreatic lipase – Nuclease – Trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase –

breaks down polysaccharides; breaks down lipids; breaks down nucleic acids; break down proteins

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Liver

Largest internal organ, Chemical factory (enormous number of metabolic reactions), Bile

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Chemical factory of Liver

Carbohydrate metabolism (glycogen); Lipid metabolism – produces bile which emulsifies lipids into smaller droplets. Protein metabolism – deaminating amino acids, forming urea, synthesizing plasma proteins and clotting factors.

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Carbohydrate metabolism - Lipid metabolism - Protein metabolism -

glycogen; produces bile which emulsifies lipids into smaller droplets; deaminating amino acids, forming urea, synthesizing plasma proteins and clotting factors.

48

Bile

Yellowish green liquid secreted by hepatic cells; Contains water, bile salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, electrolytes

49

Gall bladder

Located on inferior surface of liver; Stores, concentrates, releases bile; The hepatopancreatic sphincter muscle remains closed between meals causing bile to back up into the gall bladder; Stimulated by cholecystokinin to release bile into the small intestine.

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Small Intestine

Finishes digestion, absorbs nutrients, transports undigested/unabsorbed material to large intestine.

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Accessory Organs (not alimentary canal) 3 parts:

Duodenum – short, fixed. Jejunum – longer, more mobile/flexible. Ileum – longest, no distinct separation




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Secretions from the small intestine

Peptidase; Sucrase, maltase, lactase; Lipase

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Peptidase – Sucrase, maltase, lactase -

breaks down peptides into amino acids; break disaccharides into monosaccharides

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Large Intestine/Colon Parts:

Cecum, Vermiform appendix, Colon, Haustra

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Parts of the Colon

Ascending colon; Transverse colon; Descending colon; Sigmoid colon; Rectum; Anal canal – end of the alimentary canal; Anus – opening controlled by two sets of sphincters

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2 Parts of the Anus

Internal anal sphincter muscle – involuntary/ smooth muscle(autonomic nervous control); External anal sphincter muscle – voluntary/skeletal muscle

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Function of the Large Intestines

Absorbs water and electrolytes; Expels feces composed of: Water (75%), Undigested matter, Electrolytes, Mucus, Bacteria