AP Euro Part 7 51 cards

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Who was Gottfried von Herder and Gottlieb Fichte?

Germans who seeked common roots and culture of their Volk (German people) (Nationalism)


What did Jakob and Wilhem Grimm do?

compiled German folklore/folktales (Nationalism)


What did Giuseppe Mazzini believe in and where was he from?

-believe in national self determination in a religion - from Italy (Nationalism)


What did Frantisek Palacky do?

wrote the History of Bohemia? (Nationalism)


What is Socialism?

- resources are owned by public and can be used by everyone - people could own private property - represented by the working class - government active in economics (working to eliminate greedy capitalist) - ***redistribution of wealth*** - harmony and cooperation, NOT competition


What did Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels do?

wrote the Communist Manifesta which talked about issues with workers (socialism)


Who was Saint-Simon and what did he believe?

Give all you can, and take only what you need (socialism)


What did Charles Fourier support?

A Phalanx community (self sufficient) (socialism)


What did Robert Owens do?

Applied socialist values to his factory


What happened at the Frankfurt Assembly?

Liberal constitution formed which took 11 months. Eventually, conservatives rebounded and vetoed liberals


What group did Giuseppe Mazzini organize?

The Young Italy who believed in nationalistic ideas.


Who is Louis Phillppe and what does he do?

He is a citizen king and he flees Paris after the riots


Who elected Louis Napoleon and what does he do?

- 2nd Republic - 1851: throws out constitution - 1852: declares himself as Emperor Napoleon III


What do the Hungarians do?

- Rise up under Louis Kossuth - wrote liberal, nationalist, constitution - emperor accepts reform - Germans, Czech nationalists argue - Hungarians try to break away - Austrians crush them


What did Sir Robert Peel do?

- organized a force of professional policemen in London known as "Peelers" or "Bobbies" - formed a new coalition that became Conservative party - served two terms as prime minister - began Anti-Corn Law League to repeal Corn Laws


What were the Corn Laws?

tariffs on grains which made artificial prices


What were the accomplishments of John Stuart Mill?

- published Principles of Political Economy (emphasized the importance of the working class) - published On Liberty (emphasized the individuals/and their actions) - supported woman's rights with his wife Harriet Taylor -published On the Subjection of Women (doctrines of feminism) - 1/73 to vote for woman's suffrage in Parliament


Who was William E. Gladstone?

a reformer from Great Britain who introduced reform bill to widen suffrage, however it was defeated


Who was Benjamin Disraeli?

reformer from Great Britain who wrote the 2nd reform bill of 1867 which doubled the number of electors and Parliamentary seats that were distributed. It helped the upper working class to vote


What were the polices of Louis Napoleon?

- repressed socialist - press censorship - no public meetings - old age insurance helped poor - built medical facilities - church in control of schools - encourage business trade to distract the middle class


How did Louis Napoleon attempt to build an empire?

- tried to takeover mexico - colonization of Algeria/West Africa - Used family name (bonepart) to stimulate nationalism - joined with italy to get Nice and Savoy (left partway through)


What was the effect of the Victorian Era?

- set tone of era - emphasized duty, morality, and family - era of contradiction - restricted prostitution - attempted to clean up shakespeare,the poor and homeless - fought for child labor laws, and rights for women - fought against porno, drinking, and gambling - lists of proper and moral behavior


Who takes leadership role for unification of Italy?

Prime Minister of Sardinia, Count Camilio Benso di Cavour


Who does Cavour gain support from and what do they do?

- Napoleon III - They conspire to start war with Vienna - France receives Nice and Savoy while Italy would begin unification, Napoleon reverses after getting what he wants


Who was Giuseppe Garibaldi and what did he do?

- developed Risorgimento (Italian unification) - Financed by Cavour -Leads Red Shirts into victory over Sicily and Naples - 1861 Italy is unified *except for papal states


Who is Otto von Bismarck?

1862: Prime Minister of Prussia - Conservative - Encourage king to build up army - lead unification movement


What is Otto von Bismarcks famous quote?

"Iron and blood" (meant that it would take military action to actually do something)


What were the Danish and Austrian Wars?

- Austrians ally with Prussia - 6 week war - Split territory with austria


What was the Austro-Prussian War (1866)?

- Convince France to stay neutral - Italy supports Prussia - Austria loses in 7 weeks - Formed North German Confederation


What was the War with France (1870)?

-Ems dispatch outraged both countries - France isolated by Bismarck politically - France declares war, loses - Napoleon gets captured


What was the Treaty of Frankfurt?

Ended the War with France. -Cession of Alsace and Lorraine - Second Reich proclaimed - Wilhelm I crowned emperor


What was a corporation?

Joint stock forms where people pooled their capital in a common enterprise.


What were the advantages of a corporation?

They had "limited liability" which protected their private property


What was a Central Bank?

discounting bills of exchange (exchanging for cash), and they kept large reserves of cash-gold


What was a Commercial Bank?

provided short term loans for buisnesses


What was an Investment Bank?

extending long term credit in the form of stocks and bonds


Who were Slavic people?

A group of people who were linked together my common traits such as language


How did the Austrians control the Magyars and the Slavs?

Used tensions between nobles and their serfs to create a class war and keep the country divided


How did the new Austrian ruler attempt reform?

1859: introduced a new constitution to forestall rebellions (decentralized government) 1861: new constitution which created a 2 chamber parliament * both times failed b/c it didn't please everyone


WHy was Austria forced to compromise with Hungary?

Hungary wanted independence and took advantage of Austria's weakness (they were defeated by prussia)


What was the compromise between Austria and Hungary?

- Hungary became autonomous state w/ its own parliament - "Dual Monarchy" - Magyar controlled domestics/economics - Delegations controlled foreign policy


What was the urbanization of Europe?

- urban planning - pollution from use of coal - population increase in cities - unsanitary conditions - subway systems, better railroads - new innovations


What social reform was there?

- Rise of private charity dominated by women (aid, food, education, spirituals, hospitals) - conception arenal/prison reform


What was the Poor Law of 1834?

unemployed had to live in work houses


What was the only good thing Karl Marx did?

addressed the problems and condition of the working


What was Realism?

- not enough to be true to instincts and emotions - had to faithfully and graphically report life -should portray modern life


Who were artists who worked with realism?

~ Jean-Francois Miliet ~ Rosa Bonheur ~ Edouard Manet ~ Gustave Courbet