AP PSYCH CHAPTER 1239 cards

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1

Psychopathology

Any pattern of emotions, behaviors, or thoughts inappropriate to the situation and leading to personal distress or inabity to acheive important goals

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Hallucinations

False sensory experiences that may express mental disorder. --------- can have other causes, such as drugs or sensory isolation.

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Delusions

Extreme disorders of thinking involving persistent false beliefs. ------are the hallmark of paranoid disorders.

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Affect

A term refering to emotion or mood

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Medical model

The view that mental disorders are diseases that like ordinary physical diseases have objective physical causes and require specific treatments.

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social cognitive behavioral approach

a psychological alterniative to the medical model that views psychological disorder through a combonation of the social, cognitive, and behavioral perspectives.

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DSM-IV

the fourth edition of the diagnostic and statistical manuel of mental disorders, published by the american psychatiric association sysytem most widely accepted ion the United States

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neurosis

before the DSM-IV, this term was used as a lable for subjective distress or self defeating behavior that did not show signs of brain abnormalties or groselly irrational thinking

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psychosis

a disorder involving found disturbances in perception, rational thinking, or affect

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mood disorders

abnormal disturbances in emotion or mood, including bipolar disorder and unipolar disorder. _______ are also called affective disorders.

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Seasonal Affective Disorder

thechnically sesonal pattern specifier, this DSM-IV course specifier for mood diorders is believed to be a form of depression caused by deprivation of sunlight. the term course specifier is used to describe how a disorder progresses

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bipolar disorder

a mental abnoprmality involving swings of mood from mania to depression

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anxiety disorders

mental problems charcheterized mainly by anxiety. ________ include panic disorder, specific phobias, and OCD

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generalized anxiety disorder

a psycholoical problem charchterized by persistent and pervasive feelings of anxiety, without any external cause

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panic disorder

a disturbance marked by panic attacks that have no obvious connections with events in the person's present experience. Unlike GAD, the victim is usually free of anxiety between attacks

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Agoraphobia

a fear of public places and open spaces, commonly accompanying panic disorder

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phobias

a group of anxiety disorders involving a pathological fear of a specific object or situation

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prepardness hypothesis

the notion that we have an innate tendency acquired through natural selection, to respond quickly and automatically to stimuli that posed a survivial threat to or ancestors

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obsessive-compulsice disorder (OCD)

a condition charchterized by patterns of persistent, unwanted thoughts and behaviors

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Somatoform disorders

psychological problems appearing in the form of bodily symptoms or physical complaints, such as weaknesses or excessive worry about disease. The ______ include conversion disorder and hypochandriasis

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conversion disorder

a type of somatoform disorder, marked by paralysis, weakness, or loss of sensation but with no disernable physical cause

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hypochandisasis

a somatoform disorder involving excessive concern about health and disease

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dissocitiave disorder

a group of patholigies involving fragmentation of the personality, in which some parts of the personality have become detached from the other parts

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dissociative disorder

a psychologicaly induced loss of memory for personal information, such as one's identity or residence

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dissociative fugue

essentially the same as dissocitiave amnesia, but with the addition of "flight" from one's home, family, and job.

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depersonilazation disorder

an abnormality involving the sensation that mind and body have been spereated, as in "out-of-body" experience

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dissocitiave identity disorder

a condition in which an individual displays multiple identities or personalities

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anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder that involves persistent loss of appitie that endangers an ndividual's health and stems from emotional or psychological reasons rather that from organic causes

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bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder charchterized by eating binges followed by "purges" induced by vomiting or laxitives; typically indicated as a weight control measure

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schizophrenia

a psychotic disorder involving distortions i thoughts, [erceptions, and/ or emotions

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diathesis-stress hypothesis

in refrence to schzophrenia, the proposal that says that genitic factors place the individual at risk while environmental stress factors transform this potential into an actual schizophrenic disorder

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personality disorders

conditions involving a chronic, pervasive, inflxiable, and maladaptive pattern of thinking, emotion, social relationships, or impulse control

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narcissistic personality disorder

charachterized by a grandiose sense of self-importance, a preocupation with fantisises of success or power, and a need for constant attention or admiration.

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antisocial personality disorder

charchterized by a long standing pattern of impossible behavior indicarting a lack of consciense and a diminished sense of responsibility to others

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borderline personality disorder

an unstable personality given to impulsive behavior

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autism

a developmental disorder marked by disabbilities in language, social interaction, and the abality to understand another person's state of mind

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dyslexia

a reading disability though by some experts to involve a brain disorder

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attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

a developmental disorder involving short attention span, distactibility, and extreme difficulty in remaining inactive for a period

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insanity

a legal term, not a pschological one, reffering to a person who is unable, becuse of mental disorder or defect, to conform his or her behavior to the law