AP US History--Civil War-end of Reconstruction-start of Gilded Age44 cards

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War Profiteering

Overcharging the government for services and products.



Union victory due to the accidental incident of finding Lee's battle plans. Victory allowed Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.


Compromise of 1877

In return for Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) becoming president, martial law was lifted from the South, allowing the Democratic South to essentially undo Reconstruction progress.


Credit Mobilier scandal

Scandal during Grant's administration. Credit Mobilier was a fraudulent, private company that stole federal money by padding U.S. government contracts with Union Pacific Railroad. Participants in scandal included Grant's vice president.


Sherman's march through Georgia

Burned everything in his path, in order to destroy Confederate resources and morale. Foreshadowed total warfare of the 20th century.


Swing Around the Circle

President Johnson's campaign against the 14th Amendment, which was ratified.


Union Pacific and Central Pacific joined

Created a transcontinental railroad line in 1869. Joined by a golden spike. Brought the dream of owning land closer to everyday people.


Whiskey Ring Scandal

Scandal during Grant's administration. Group of distillers who bribed federal officials to avoid paying taxes, including Grant's private secretary.


Andrew Johnson

Southern Democrat who was Lincoln's V.P. Reconstruction Plan: based off the 10% plan, provisional military governments before readmitted, Southern citizens take oath of allegiance to get amnesty (Confederate officials excluded), and didn't require en


Ulysses S. Grant

Union General during Civil War. Reconstruction President, corrupt administration tainted Reconstruction.


Abraham Lincoln

Illinois Senator, was a Whig, then Republican. He was not an abolitionist, even during Civil War.


Ku Klux Klan

Led a war of intimidation against those who supported Reconstruction efforts.


Radical Republicans

Wanted immediate emancipation of slaves. They introduced the Confiscation Acts. During Reconstruction they controlled enough of Congress to override presidential vetoes, and favored harsh re-admittance policies.


Booker T. Washington

He promoted economic independence as a way for blacks to improve their position in society. He refused to press for immediate rights.


Atlanta Exposition/Compromise

Booker T. Washington's speech which outlined his view on race relations.


Confederate States of America

7 slave states in the South who seceded from the Union. Even though they favored states' rights, the Confederacy had a strong central government for the war effort.


Thirteenth Amendment

Constitutional Amendment prohibiting slavery.


Fourteenth Amendment

Part of Congressional Reconstruction. 1. Born in the U.S.=citizenship 2. Can't deprive citizens of "life, liberty, or property without the due process of law" 3. Prevented states from denying equal protection under the law. 4. Must allow voting i


Fifteenth Amendment

Required states to enfranchise black men. Only passed because the South was required to ratify it.


Amnesty Act

Pardoned many Confederate Rebels, allowing them to return to public life and hold political office.


Bradwell v. Illinois

Myra Bradwell sought a law practice license, but was denied due to gender. The Supreme Court upheld this decision because Bradwell was married, thus she couldn't own property or make contracts.


Command of the Army Act

President couldn't issue any orders to the military without going through the top general, which was Grant. (unconstitutional)


Confiscation Act

1. Allowed the Union to seize any slaves used for insurrectury purposes. 2. Government can liberate slaves of anyone supporting the rebellion (i.e. paying Confederate taxes)


Emancipation Proclamation

Followed the Union's victory at Antietam. Declared that the Union would liberate all slaves in states still in rebellion. Was a political ploy: (1) entice rebels back, in order to keep their slaves and (2) keep abolitionist Great Britain out of the w


Freedmen's Bureau

Helped newly freed blacks establish a place in society: fixed immediate problems of survival (food/housing) and developed social institutions (schools, etc.). Considered the first federal social welfare program in U.S. History.


Homestead Act

Offered 160 acres to anyone who would homestead (live on it and farm it) for 5 years. Railroads and private speculators exploited it though.


Lincoln's Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction

1. Allowed for full pardons to rebels except high officials of the Confederacy. 2. 10% plan 3. Develop freed men plans that didn't infringe freedom.


Lincoln's Ten-Percent Plan

Required only 10% of the electorate in 1860 to swear future allegiance to the U.S. and accept the 13th Amendment, then they could reorganize the state government and apply for readmission.


Military Reconstruction Act

Established martial law in the Southern states, required new state constitutions to be written and to allow blacks to vote for delegates, ratify 14th Amendment, and send the constitution to Congress for approval. Passed laws limiting presidential pow


Morrill Land Grant Act

Set aside land and provided money for agricultural colleges.


Tenure of Office Act

President had to secure Senate consent before removing approved appointees. Led to Johnson's impeachment for firing Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton.


Trent Affair

2 Confederate delegates travel aboard the British ship the Trent, and a Union ship stops and arrests them. Britain threatens war, so Lincoln releases the prisoners to avoid a second war.


Wade-Davis Bill

Radical Republican Reconstruction plan. Confederate states placed under martial law, 50% of 1860 electorate had to swear an ironclad oath (past and future loyalty), repeal secession, ratify the 13th Amendment, and abolish slavery. Lincoln pocket-veto


Dawes Severalty Act

Broke up Native American reservations and distributed 160 acres to each Native American family. This land was to be farmed and lived on for 25 years, with the final "prize" being U.S. citizenship.


Chinese Exclusion Act

Limited Chinese immigration, as a result of a high influx of Chinese immigrants from the Californian gold rush.


Munn v. Illinois

Supreme Court ruled in favor of railroad laws. States had the right to regulate private industry that served "public interest."


Plessy v. Ferguson

Supreme Court ruling that "separate but equal" is legal. Allowed segregation and Jim Crow laws.


Wabash case

Supreme Court ruled that states cannot establish rates involving interstate commerce. Overturned Munn v. Illinois.


Brooklyn Bridge

Steel cable-suspension bridge. Opened in 1883 after 14 years of construction.


Thomas A. Edison

He invented the light bulb, and did large amounts of work with power plants. Resulted in longer workday and wider availability of electricity.


Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce

Forced off tribal lands in 1877. Chief Joseph refused to fight after his people began to starve and freeze.


Sioux Wars

Sioux fought against railroads for killing the buffalo, and with it, their lifestyle. Federal troops are sent in. Battle of Little Big Horn.


Rutherford B. Hayes

Gilded Age president as a result of the Compromise of 1877.


Jane Addams

Founded the Hull House, which provided services to immigrants.