AP US History--Constitution and Five Presidents48 cards

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Adams's "midnight appointments"

John Adams filled as many government positions with Federalists before Thomas Jefferson took office, but Thomas Jefferson reused to recognize the appointees. He replaced the Federalist jobs by pressuring them to retire, firing them, or waiting until


First Bank of the United States

Proposed by Hamilton to regulate and strengthen the economy. Sparked the debate of strict v. loose interpretation. Thomas Jefferson v. Alexander Hamilton. Washington agrees with Hamilton and passes the bank.


Judicial Review

Supreme court only reviews the constitutionality of laws; it can not enforce its decisions.


Loose Construction

Use of the Necessary and Proper Clause (Elastic Clause) to expand federal government using the implied powers of the enumerated powers.


President's Cabinet

Precedent set by George Washington. Heads of various executive departments form the presidents chief group of advisers.


Strict Construction

Constitution only grants Congress the enumerated powers. Everything else is just "desirable."


Washington's Farewell Address

Warned the newly formed United States to avoid foreign entanglements (peacetime alliances) and groups seeking to overthrow the government by amending away its power.


Annapolis Convention

Convened by Hamilton because he felt there was no uniform commercial policy under the Articles of Confederation, but only 5 delegatesChe showed up.


Chesapeake Affair

Pre-War of 1812. A British warship demanded to search the U.S.S. Chesapeake for British deserters, and for impressment purposes, but the U.S. captain refused. The British warship opened fire and killed 5 Americans and wounded 18 others.


Constitutional Convention of 1787

Originally convened to revise the Articles of Confederation. Every state, except Rhode Island, sent delegates. Over 4 months the delegates created the Constitution.


"Era of Good Feelings"

Period of U.S. history, during Monroe's presidency, with only one political party (after the Federalist party disintegrated). The term hides the economic development and growing sectionalism of the time.


Federalist Papers

Essays written to the people of New York to sway people to ratify the newly made Constitution. The anonymous authors were John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton.


Hartford Convention

Federalist convention to consider a massive overhaul of the Constitution or secession. Federalists appeared to be traitors now, so the party disappeared, leading in to the Era of Good Feelings.


Shay's Rebellion

1787-1500 armed farmers from Western Massachusetts protested unfair economic and political policies towards backcountry farmers from the coastal elite.


Tripoli War

1801-1805. War between U.S. and Tripoli (a Barbary coast state). U.S. emerges victorious and no longer pays a tribute and established a naval base in Tripoli.


Undeclared naval war with France

1798-1801-The U.S. had a treaty with England limiting trade with the French, so the French start privateering and taking U.S ships. Ended when Napoleon comes to power.


Whiskey Rebellion

Western Pennsylvania farmers resisted the excise tax imposed to counter national debt. Washington demonstrates the strength of the new government by sending in the militia to disperse rebels. When 2 rebels were convicted, Washington pardoned them, de


XYZ Affair

French officials required a large bribe in order to begin negotiations with U.S. officials. John Adams published the report in the papers, which swayed public opinion from pro-French to anti-French.


John Adams

2nd President of the United States. Federalist President with Democratic-Republican V.P.-Thomas Jefferson. Anticlimactic presidency.



Opponents of the new Constitution. Mainly from the backcountry, and were appalled by the lack of a Bill of Rights. Wanted a weaker central government and stronger state governments.



Pro-Constitution, favored a strong central government and weaker state governments. Hartford Convention dissolved the party.


Citizen Edmond Genet

Visited the U.S. to seek assistance in French Revolution. Washington issues the Neutrality Proclamation.


Thomas Jefferson

Secretary of State under George Washington. Third President of the U.S. Strict constructionist who believed in the noble yeoman farmer and states' governments rights.


JOhn Marshall

First Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Established judicial review.


James Monroe

5th President of the U.S. "Era of Good Feelings" Democratic-Republican.


George Washington

First President of the United States. Precedents: hand on the bible and "so help me God" during the oath of office, presidential cabinet, Whiskey Rebellion, executive privilege-right to withhold vital information to protect national security, two ter



Farmers who owned their own land and owned no slaves, who worked the land with their families.


Mississippi River

Thomas Jefferson and Louisiana Purchase. U.S. gains complete control over Mississippi.


Adam-Onis Treaty

1819- U.S. acquires Florida from Spain.


Alien and Sedition Acts

John Adams presidency. Allowed the government to expel foreigners and jail newspaper editors for scandalous or malicious writings. Aimed at destroying the Democratic-Republican party (mainly foreigners).


Bill of Rights

First 10 Amendments to the Constitution. 1791 created to protect citizens' basic rights.


Chisholm v. Georgia

Supreme Court rules Article 3, Section 2 destroys States' sovereign immunity-they must appear in court. Led to the ratification of the 11th Amendment, which removed federal jurisdiction when a citizen of a state sues another state.


Embargo Act

1807-Law that shut down U.S. imports and exports to prevent war with Britain. Led to the development of New England manufacturing.


Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise)

Blended the New Jersey and the Virginia Plans. Created a bicameral legislature: Senate elected by state legislatures and House of Representatives elected by the people. President/Vice President elected by electoral college.


Jay Treaty

Considered the low point of Washington's administration. Negotiated British evacuation of the Northwest Territory, prevented war with Britain, but critics argued that there were too many concessions to the British paying off debts.


Judiciary Act of 1789

Granted the power to enforce decisions to the Supreme Court. Declared unconstitutional by John Marshall in Marbury v. Madison.


Marbury v. Madison

William Marbury (a midnight appointee) sued Sec. of State Madison for refusing to certify his appointment. Chief Justice John Marshall issues doctrine of judicial review, by saying Marbury has a right to his appointment, but the courts can't enforce


McCulloch v. Maryland

Supreme Court ruled that states couldn't tax the National Bank, which established the precedence of national law over state law.


Monroe Doctrine

Policy of mutual non-interference. Europe stay out of Western Hemisphere affairs and U.S. will stay out of European affairs.


Nonintercourse Act, Force Act, Macon's Bill #2

Nonintercourse Act-reopened trade with all countries, except Britain and France Force Act-forced the Embargo of 1807 to be repealed Macon's Bill #2-reopened trade with Britain and France-Napoleon renounced interference with U.S., so U.S. had to cut


Pinckney's Treaty

Treaty of San Lorenzo-negotiated use of Mississippi River, duty free access to world markets for U.S.,and the removal of Spanish forts on U.S. territory. Washington used executive privilege.


Protective Tariff

1789- on goods produced in Europe, attempting to encourage American business. 1816-promote American manufacturing


Rush-Bagot Agreement

Limited the number of warships on the great lakes. 1817


Treaty of Ghent

Declared an armistice between U.S and Britain after the War of 1812. It didn't address impressment or neutral shipping rights.


New Orleans

Major port on Mississippi River, U.S. negotiates control of port with Spain in Pinckney's Treaty.


Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Jefferson and Madison anonymously write resolutions saying that states reserve the right to judge the constitutionality of federal laws by nullifying them. Nullified the Alien and Sedition Acts.


Battle of New Orleans

General Andrew Jackson. Was the only clear American victory during the War of 1812, which happened after the Treaty of Ghent was signed.


War Hawks

People who wanted to go to war with Britain in the War of 1812, to gain lands in the South and West.