AP US History--Gilded Age38 cards

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Beard Thesis (of the Constitution)

The Constitution was nothing more than the work of an economic elite to protect its property.


Gospel of Wealth

Philanthropy for the wealthy by doing things for society with one's wealth, not charity.


Horizontal Integration

Owning all companies of a particular industry, the classic monopoly.


Social Darwinism

Based off Darwin's Theory of Evolution and natural selection. Those who are destined to be successful will work hard, be strong and succeed. Those who are not will die and never advance in society. Justification for monopolies and poor working condit


Standard Oil Co.

Owned by John D. Rockefeller. Horizontally integrated business. Used ruthless methods to gain a monopoly on oil sales in the U.S. 1870-owned 2-3% of U.S. oil. 1880-owned 90% of U.S. oil.



A consolidation of many companies in the same industry to gain a monopoly, in the hands of a "trust" or board of directors.


U.S. Steel Corporation

Owned by Andrew Carnegie. Vertical integrated business. In 1899 it manufactured more steel than all of Great Britain.


Vertical Integration

Owning every step of an industry (raw materials, production, transportation)


"Cross of Gold" speech

William Jenning's Bryan speech that argued an easy money supply would loosen the control of Northern banks on the U.S.


Haymarket Square riot

Labor demonstration where a bomb exploded, killing police. Blamed the union as being radical.


Homestead Strike

Injunction sought to break strike and federal troops sent in to enforce the injunction.


Pullman Strike

Pullman drops wages 30%, so workers go on strike. The ARU starts a sympathy strike, which affects mail cars, so federal troops are sent in to break up the strike.


American Federation of Labor (AFL)

Skilled/craft union which was led by Samuel Gompers. Focused on "bread and butter" issues (wages, workday), not philosophical issues (socialism).


American Protective Association

Nativist group that started vicious anti-Catholic attacks (aimed at Irish).


William Jennings Bryan

Democratic presidential candidate running against McKinley. Supported by the Populist Party, whose platform he took.


Andrew Carnegie

Robber Baron who owned U.S. Steel. Followed the Gospel of Wealth.


Civil Service Commission

Oversaw examinations for potential government employees. Created by the Pendleton Civil Service Act.


Coxey's Army

Marched on Washington D.C. after the Panic of 1893 to support legislature to create jobs. Policemen clubbed 50 out of the 100. Example of a Populist cause.


Eugene V. Debs

Led the American Railroad Union, which was an industry wide union that used strikes. Was a socialist.


James Garfield

Gilded Age President


Samuel Gompers

Founded the AFL trade union.


The Grange movement

Cooperatives allowing farmers to buy machinery and sell crops as a group-became a political party which evolved into the Populist party.


Greenback Party

National Independent Party. They wanted the U.S. to return to the greenback policy after the Civil War, no hard currency, which appealed to debtor groups like farmers and laborers.


Benjamin Harrison

Gilded Age President


Knights of Labor

Universal union led by Terrence Powderly. Goals: 8 hour day, equal pay for women, child labor laws, safety/sanitation codes, federal income tax, and government ownership of railroads and telephone/telegraph lines.


National Labor Union

Refused to admit African Americans into union. First large scale labor union, which concentrated on linking local unions. Got government workers an 8 hour day.


Populist Party/Platform

Silver standard, government ownership of railroads and telegraphs, graduated income tax, direct election of Senators, and a shorter work day.


Terrence Powderly

Led the Knights of Labor in a series of unsuccessful strikes.


Robber Barons

People who controlled an industry and became extremely wealthy and powerful during the Gilded Age.


John D. Rockefeller

Owned Standard Oil Co. Ruthless horizontal integration tactics.


"Boss" Tweed

Political boss of New York City, Tammany Hall


Workingmen's Party

Socialist political party, remnants of the First Communist International, fought against Chinese immigration.


Bland-Allison Act

Required the government to buy and coin between $2 million and $4 million worth of silver each month, in an attempt to increase money supply, but it wasn't enough.


Interstate Commerce Act

Created the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission)to supervise railroad activities and to regulate unfair/unethical practices.


Pendleton Act

Civil service reform act passed in response to charges of patronage of awarding government jobs. It created the Civil Service Commission to oversee examinations.


Sherman Anti-Trust Act

Ambiguously worded anti-trust/monopoly law. Allowed the pro-business Supreme Court to interpret the law against unions, not actual trusts.


Sherman Silver Purchase Act

The federal government must purchase and coin 4.5 million ounces of silver per month. Helped lead to the Panic of 1893 due to sharp drops in silver prices.


United States v. E. C. Knight Co.

E.c. Knight Co. owned 98% of U.S. sugar business, but didn't violate Sherman Anti-Trust Act because local manufacturing not subject to Congressional commerce regulation.