AP US History--Imperialism31 cards

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Frontier (Turner) Thesis

The presence of the frontier was significant in: 1. Shaping the American character 2. Defining the American spirit 3. Fostering democracy 4. Providing a safety valve for economic distress in urban areas



Extreme patriotic zeal that was typified by a readiness to go to war in support of a nation's foreign policy.


"White Man's Burden"

Title of Rudyard Kipling's poem that defined the "duty" of the white man to Christianize and civilize natives who were deemed unfit to rule themselves.


Yellow Journalism

Sensationalized journalism (exaggerated stories of war accounts)


Pre-1894 Anti-Imperialistic Evidence

1. Revolutionary War 2. Washington's Farewell Address 3. Monroe Doctrine-1833 4. President Cleveland's 1893 speech to the Senate on Hawaii stating why annexation of Hawaii was "bad."


Events that push U.S. imperialism

1. 1890-frontier closed 2. 1893-2nd worst economic depression (20% unemployment, need for new markets for 3x farm production and 2x industrial production. 3. Britain claims 1/4 of world's land (U.S. left out) 4. "Paternalism"-racism


Boxer Rebellion

Secret nationalist Chinese groups that rebelled to get rid of foreigners in China. Practice of martial arts led to the name "Boxers." International forces put down the rebellion. Boxer Protocol: China pays $332 million in damages (U.S. got $24.5 mill


Filipino Insurrection

After U.S. annexation of Philippines, Filipino's raged a guerrilla war.


Spanish-American War

April 1898-August 1898 U.S. public support gained from yellow journalism, U.S.S. Maine explosion, Rough Riders. The deLome letter criticized President McKinley for being weak, which outraged U.S. public. Spanish government apologizes, deLome retired


U.S.S. Maine

Exploded in Havana harbor in Cuba. Used for propaganda against the Spanish, and helped sway American opinion towards war.


William Randoph Hearst

Yellow Journalist during the Spanish American War. Ran the New York Journal.


Alfred Thayer Mahan (author of The Influence of Sea Power Upon History)

Nations need foreign trade, which comes from foreign ports and markets, which require overseas colonies, which require a strong "New Navy" to protect the colonies.


William McKinley

Imperialistic Republican president. President during Spanish American War.


Joseph Pulitzer

Yellow Journalist during the Spanish American War, ran the New York World.


Queen Liliuokalani/Hawaii

American sugar producers overthrew the weak Hawaiian government, which was weakened by U.S. allowance of duty-free imports, switched to high tariffs. Then, the United States annexed Hawaii. President Cleveland made a speech to the Senate declaring ho


Rough Riders

Volunteer Calvary led by Theodore Roosevelt in Cuba during the Spanish American War. Became national heroes for their victory at Santiago, which led to the victory of San Juan Hill.


Fredrick Jackson Turner (author of The Significance of the Frontier in American History)

The 1890 census declared the frontier was closed, and with it, Turner argued, the first period of U.S. history.


Dollar Diplomacy

Protecting American business interests in imperial areas.


Missionary Diplomacy

Moral responsibility of the U.S. to deny recognition to any Latin American nation viewed as hostile.



U.S. imposed high tariffs, which led to Cuban civil war, which led to the Spanish American War. The Platt and Teller amendments state U.S. has no intention of taking over Cuba.



U.S. allowed tariff-free exports to the U.S. When Hawaii became dependent, U.S. imposed high tariffs, which destroyed the Hawaiian economy. Then the white minority of sugar producers overthrew Hawaii's monarchy, and the U.S. annexed. This angered Jap


The Philippines

Senate votes to annex the Philippines, which leads to the Filipino rebellions.


Puerto Rico, Samoa, Guam

Territories gained from the Treaty of Paris and the Spanish-American War.


Insular Cases

Supreme Court rules that the Constitution doesn't follow the flag, which means it doesn't immediately apply to newly acquired peoples. Congress retains the right to grant U.S. citizenship based on the specific circumstances of a territory.


McKinley Tariff

Raised the level of duties on imported goods by 50%.


Open Door Policy

Policy where all world nations share trading rights with each other in China, so no nation would have a monopoly over Chinese trade. Also, the U.S. pledged to be the safe guard for this policy.


Platt Amendment

1. Cuba can't make treaties that limit is independence or permits a foreign nation to control any part of the territory. 2. U.S. reserves the right to intervene in Cuba. 3. Cuba can't be in debt. 4. U.S. could buy or lease land for naval/refueling


Teller Amendment

Stated that the U.S. had no intention of taking over Cuba. Recognized Cuban independence.


Treaty of Paris

Ended Spanish American War. Spain ceded Puerto Rico, Guam, and Samoa to U.S. U.S. paid $20 million for Philippines and Cuban independence granted.


Wilson-Gorman Tariff

Similar to McKinley Tariff. Considered to be one of the causes of the Spanish-American War.


Foraker Act

Ended military rule and established a civil government in Puerto Rico. Gave the President the power to appoint the governor of Puerto Rico and the members of the upper house legislature. Puerto Ricans could only vote for lower house representatives.