AP US History--Revolutionary War and Articles of Confederation32 cards

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Boston Massacre

Britain stationed troops in Boston, who remained after the Townshend Acts were repealed, to "keep the peace." The soldiers competed for off-hour jobs, so a mob of colonists pelt the soldiers with rock-filled snowballs. The soldiers retaliate, killing


Boston Tea Party

Reaction to Tea Act taxes. Boston refused to unload tea ships, but governor of Boston refused to let the ships leave the harbor. Sons of Liberty, disguised as Mohawks, 'unload' the tea in to the harbor. Leads to Intolerable Acts.


French and Indian War

Seven Years War, lasted from 1754-1763. It was a war for empires as a result of colonial expansion. British are victorious and get control of Canada and everything East of the Mississippi River. France keeps 2 small, but highly profitable islands (me


King George's War

1744-1748. Was the American colonial phase of the European War of the Austrian Succession. Between France and Britain, for control of North America.


Stamp Act Crisis

More representation in Parliament v. more autonomy. British claim virtual representation. Sons of Liberty burned tax collectors in effigy. Virginia Stamp Act Resolves protested tax, and asserted colonial rights to self government.


First Continental Congress

Every colony sent delegates, apart from Georgia. Goals: 1. To enumerate American grievances. 2. Develop a strategy for addressing those grievances. 3. Formulate a colonial position on the relationship between royal government and colonies. Actions: L


Thomas Jefferson

Drafted Declaration of Independence. Enlightenment scholar.


Thomas Paine

Wrote "Common Sense," which advocated colonial independence and the importance of a republic over a monarchy.


Second Continental Congress

Prepared for Revolutionary War: established Continental Army, printed money, created government offices to supervise policy, and placed George Washington at the command of the Continental Army.


Sons of Liberty

Violent, colonial protest group formed after the Stamp Act.


George Washington

Was a general in the French/Indian War, Commander of Continental Army.


Albany Plan of Union

Was a system for intercolonial government and collecting taxes for the colonies' defense. Rejected because the colonies didn't want to relinquish powers of taxation to a central government.


Articles of Confederation

First national constitution that was intentionally created with little central government power (afraid of an imperial rule). Limitations: couldn't tax, regulate trade, and amendments needed 100% ratification. Successes: Northwest Ordinance and Land


British Proclamation of 1763

Resulted from Pontiac's Rebellion and other Indian uprisings. Declared that there was to be no settlement west of the Appalachians. Colonial response: Unwarranted British interference in westward expansion.


Cumberland (National) Road

Cleared by Daniel Boone in 1775. Was the first federal road, which connected Virginia to Kentucky. Became one of the major routes for westward expansion.


Declaration of Independence

Included the colonial grievances of the Crown, the principle of individual liberty, and the governments fundamental responsibility to the people. Major flaw: included only white, propertied males. Signed July 4,1776.


Declaratory Act

Result of the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that the British government has the power to tax its colonies.


Franco-American Alliance

Negotiated by Ben Franklin after the American victory at Saratoga. Alliance between France and the U.S. during the Revolutionary War that helped the U.S. win the war.


Intolerable (Coercive) Acts

Closed the Boston harbor (except for wood and food) until tea damages paid; martial law; Quartering Act; and British officials tried in England, not the colonies. Colonial response: 1st Continental Congress.


Land Ordinance of 1785

Established a plan to survey land and divided the land into smaller plots under the Articles of Confederation.


Massachusetts Circular Letter

Written in protest to the Townshend Acts. Was sent to colonial assemblies, but the British censored it, further igniting its popularity. Results in boycotts of British goods, leading to British merchants demanding repeal of Townshend Acts.


Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Bill of rights guaranteeing trial by jury, freedom of religion, freedom from excessive punishment, and abolished slavery in the Northwest Territories. Also, created statehood application requirements.


Olive Branch Petition

Last ditch attempt by colonies to reconcile with Britain. Was adopted by the Continental Congress, but King George III decided colonies were already in rebellion due to boycotts and Lexington and Concord battles.


Quartering Acts

Part of the Coercive Acts, which allowed British officers to house soldiers in vacant homes and buildings.


Stamp Act

First internal tax on American colonies. Three things: 1. Tax directly aimed at raising revenue. 2. Broad-based tax on all legal documents, which affected persuasive, educated people (lawyers and newspapers). 3. Tax on goods produced in the colonies.


Stamp Act Congress

"No taxation without representation," either more representation or more autonomy. Sons of Liberty/Virginia Stamp Act Resolves.


Sugar and Currency Acts

Sugar Act-British tariff lowered duties on molasses, but the new regulations were more strictly enforced (actually collected) vice-admiralty courts: Trials without a jury; writs of assistance: British have rights to search any place suspected of hold


Tea Act

Enacted to save British East India Company from bankruptcy. Granted a monopoly over colonial tea sales to British East India Company. Colonial response: Boston Tea Party


Townshend Acts

1. Taxed goods directly from Britain 2. Set aside some tax money to pay tax collectors salary, so colonists can't withhold salaries to get their way. 3. Vice-admiralty courts 4. Suspended New York's legislature 5. Writs of Assistance


Treaty of Paris (2 of them)

First ended French/Indian War. Second ended American Revolution, which granted the U.S. independence and territorial rights.


Committees of Correspondence

As a result of Britain paying tax collectors from the Townshend Acts, colonists set up these committees to trade ideas and inform each other of the political mood.


George III

King of England during the American Revolution.