AP US History--Social and Economic Events-1824-pre-Civil War33 cards

Tagged as: history, medical, government, education, criminal justic, medicine, religion, nursing, german, language

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Gold Rush in California

1848-attracted more than 100,000 to California, many stayed after not "striking it rich" to farm the fertile lands in California.


Reform movements

Fueled by the Second Great Awakening. Included temperance, prison reform, education, Utopian societies, and abolition. Jackson fought movements that called for more government activism against social and economic problems.


Second Great Awakening

Began in the 1790s in New York (the "Burned Over District"). Was a period religious revivalism, which set the religious tone for reform movements because people improve society and themselves. Churches sprang up in places with few churches (revivals)


Seneca Falls Convention

1848-Women's Rights Convention. Drafted the Declaration of Rights and Sentiments of Women, which was based off the Declaration of Independence.


Uncle Tom's Cabin

Harriet Beecher Stowe's melodramatic novel about slavery. Was a form of abolitionist propaganda.


American Antislavery Society

Founded by William Lloyd Garrison. 3/4 of the members were blacks. Garrison isolated whites by accusing churches and the government of not condemning slavery.


Susan B. Anthony

Founded the National Woman Suffrage Association in 1869.


Anti-masonic Party

Hysteria that Freemasons were ruling the nation against republican ideals sparked people to form this party protesting Freemason's control over the government.


Elizabeth Blackwell

First woman to graduate from medical school. She opened the New York Infirmary for Women and Children.


Dorothea Dix

Reformed penitentiaries. She sought to rehabilitate criminals by teaching them morality and a "work ethic."


Fredrick Douglass

Escaped slave that wrote the abolitionist paper, The North Star. He also wrote an autobiography and was one of the most prominent black abolitionists.


Emerson and Thoreau

Transcendentalists-all humans have a part of the divine in them, so society IS perfectible. Thoreau-"Civil Disobedience"-protested paying taxes for the Mexican-American War.


Robert Fulton

Steamboat operator that navigated the Clermont on a 32-hr trip from New York City to Albany, NY.


Horace Mann

Pushed for public education and education reform. He lengthened the school year, created the first "Normal" school for teacher training, and used the first standardized books.


Seventh Day Adventist Church

Tried to hasten Christ's 2nd coming by reestablishing the Sabbath on Saturday. The fundamentalists believed that the scripture is the final word. Founded 1863.


Mexican-American War

Resulted from a Mexican attack on Texas. Abolitionists feared that the new states in the West would be slave states, tipping the balance in Congress.


Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Mexico gives up Arizona, New Mexico, California, Nevada, and Utah (Mexican Cession) and the U.S. pays $15 million to Mexico.


Wilmot Proviso

Defeated Congressional Bill prohibiting the expansion of slavery into the Mexican Cession. Defeat led to the formation of the Free-Soil Party.



Utopian group of former Quakers who formed isolated communes, where they shared the work and rewards, and granted women near-full equal rights. Their practice of celibacy led to their dwindling numbers.


Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Held the first Seneca Falls Convention. Founded the National Women Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony.


Temperance Societies

Reform groups that tried to encourage people to pledge not to drink and some sought prohibition.


Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)

Prohibition/temperance movement. Frances Willard transformed it into the largest national female group in the U.S. "Do everything" slogan: make immigrant kindegartens, visit inmates, etc.


Erie Canal

Linked the Great Lakes to New York, and thus to European shipping routes. Further cemented New England's dominance as the commerce center.


Brook Farm

Transcendentalist Utopian community in Massachusetts. Failed (of course).


Dred Scott v. Sandford

Supreme Court Case where Chief Justice Taney rules that Dred Scott can't not sue because he was a former slave because slaves are property. Furthermore, Taney states blacks can never be citizens, so they can never sue in the Supreme Court, and Congre


Gibbons v. Ogden

Only the federal government has the power to regulate anything that crosses state lines. Gibbons and Ogden were steamboat operators, whom New York had given one a monopoly over the Hudson (which crossed state lines).


Assembly Lines

Products are constructed more efficiently by dividing the labor into a number of tasks and assigning a worker to each task.


Interchangeable Parts

Invented by Eli Whitney for muskets. Led to the mass production of goods.


Lowell System

Worker-enticement program that guaranteed workers housing in boarding houses, cash wages, and participation in mill-organized events.



Extreme hatred of foreigners.


Utopian Communities

Idealized, 'perfect' communities, most failed. Examples: Shaker communities, Brook Farm, etc.


Irish and German Immigration

Mass immigration happened during the 1840s-'50s. The Irish immigrated to Northern cities, where they met extreme prejudice and hatred for being Catholic. The Germans immigrated to rural Western areas and met less prejudice.


Mormon Church

Founded by Joseph Smith. The tolerance of polygamy forced them to migrate to Utah. They dominated the Utah area by irrigating it.