APUSH review part 1270 cards

Tagged as: accounting, economics, business, finance, nursing, criminal justic, anatomy, physics, law, government, education, japanese, act, lsat, religion, french, language, computer science

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1

Supply side economics

Reaganomics policy based on theory that allowing companies the opportunity to make profits, and encouraging investment, will stimulate economy & lead to higher standards of living for everyone. Argued that tax cuts can be used stimulate economy

2

Sandra Day O'Connor

Reagan appointed her to the U.S. Supreme Court, making her the first female Justice of the Supreme Court.

3

Three Mile Island

1979 - A mechanical failure and a human error at this power plant in Pennsylvania combined to permit an escape of radiation over a 16 mile radius.

4

"Moral Majority"

"Born-Again" Christians become politically active. The majority of Americans are moral people, and therefore are a political force.

5

Escobedo v. Illinois, 1964

Court ruled that there was a right to counsel at the police station. This was needed to deter forced confessions given without the benefit of counsel.

6

Bakke v. Board of Regents, University of California at Davis, 1978

Barred colleges from admitting students solely on the basis of race, but allowed them to include race along with other considerations when deciding which students to admit.

7

Supreme Court: Roe v. Wade, 1973

Supreme Court ruled that states could not restrict abortion. ruled that a state may not prevent woman from having abortion during 1st 3 months of pregnancy, & could regulate, but not prohibit abortion during 2nd trimester

8

Jimmy Hoffa

Leader of the teamster's union, he was anti-AFL/CIO. He threatened to defeat for reelection any Congressman who dared to vote for a tough labor law.

9

Sputnik

The first artificial satellite sent into space, launched by the Soviets.

10

"Military-Industrial Complex"

Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that combined lobbying efforts of armed services & industry

11

Philip Randolph

President of the Brotherhood of Car Porters and a Black labor leader, in 1941 he arranged a march on Washington to end racial discrimination.

12

Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma

He wrote this to increase White awareness of the awful discrimination against Blacks.

13

Desegregation of the Armed Forces, 1948

In July, Truman issued an executive order establishing a policy of racial equality in the Armed Forces "be put into effect as rapidly as possible." He also created a committee to ensure its implementation.

14

"Separate but Equal"

In 1896, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that separate but supposedly equal facilities for Blacks and Whites were legal.

15

Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.

16

Thurgood Marshall

In 1967, was appointed the first Black Supreme Court Justice, he had led NAACP's legal defense fund & had argued the Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case before the Supreme Court.

17

Rosa Parks

In Montgomery, Alabama, she refused to give up her bus seat for a White man as required by city ordinance. It started the Civil Rights Movement and an almost nation-wide bus boycott lasting 11 months.

18

Little Rock, Arkansas Crisis

1957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.

19

Literacy tests, grandfather clause, poll taxes, White primaries

Literacy tests: Voters had to prove basic literacy to be entitled to vote. Because of poor schools, Blacks were often prevented from voting. Grandfather clause: Said that a person could vote only if their grandfather had been registered to vote

20

West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, 1942

Decided that a state can require student to salute the flag in school.

21

Korematsu v. U.S., 1944

Upheld the U.S. government's decision to put Japanese-Americans in internment camps during World War II.

22

Dennis v. U.S., 1951

1948, the Attorney General indicted two key Communist leaders for violation of Smith Act of 1940 which prohibited conspiring to teach violent overthrow of the government. They were convicted in a 6-2 decision and their appeal was rejected.

23

Sweatt v. Painter, 1950

Segregated law school in Texas was held to be an illegal violation of civil rights, leading to open enrollment.

24

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Headed by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., a coalition of churches and Christians organizations who met to discuss civil rights.

25

Urban League

Helping Blacks to find jobs and homes, it was founded in 1966 and was a social service agency providing facts about discrimination.

26

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

1941-42:Interracial until 1962, when it became predominately Black, after 1964, only Blacks were allowed to join. It concentrated on organizing votes for Black candidates and political causes, successful even in states like Mississippi and Alabama.

27

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

Organized in the fall of 1960 by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. as a student civil rights movement inspired by sit-ins, it challenged the status quo and walked the back roads of Mississippi and Georgia to encourage Blacks to resist segregation and

28

Sit-ins, freedom rides

Late 1950's, early 1960's, these were nonviolent demonstrations and marches that challenged segregation laws, often braving attacks by angry White mobs.

29

"I have a dream" speech

Given in August 1963 from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

30

March on Washington, 1963

August 1963: 200,000 demonstrators converged on the Lincoln Memorial to hear Dr. King's speech and to celebrate Kennedy's support for the civil rights movement.

31

Medgar Evers

Director of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his driveway by a member of the Ku Klux Klan.

32

Malcom X

One-time pimp and street hustler, converted to a Black Muslim while in prison. At first urged Blacks to seize their freedom by any means necessary, but later changed position and advocated racial harmony. He was assassinated in February, 1965.

33

Stokely Carmichael

In 1966, as chair of SNCC, he called to assert Black Power. Supporting the Black Panthers, he was against integration.

34

Black Panthers

Led by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, they believed that racism was an inherent part of the U.S. capitalist society and were militant, self-styled revolutionaries for Black Power.

35

Black Muslims

Common name for the Nation of Islam, a religion that encouraged separatism from White society. They claimed the "White Devil" was the chief source of evil in the world.

36

Angela Davis

Black Communist college professor affiliated with the Black Panthers, she was accused of having been involved in a murderous jail-break attempt by that organization.

37

Black Power

A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.

38

Twenty-Fourth Amendment

1964 - It outlawed taxing voters, i.e. poll taxes, at presidential or congressional elections, as an effort to remove barriers to Black voters.

39

Kerner Commission on Civil Disorders

In 1968, this commission, chaired by Otto Kerner, decided that the race riots were due to the formation of two different American cultures: inner-city Blacks and suburban Whites.

40

White Backlash

Resistance to Black demands led by "law and order" advocates whose real purpose was to oppose integration.

41

Thurgood Marshall

In 1967, appointed the first Black Supreme Court Justice, he had led that NAACP's legal defense fund and had argued the Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case before the Supreme Court.

42

Voting Rights Act, 1965

Passed by Congress in 1965, it allowed for supervisors to register Blacks to vote in places where they had not been allowed to vote before.

43

Viet Cong

Name given to the guerilla fighters on the Communist side. The North Vietnamese Army (NVA) were regular troops.

44

Dien Bien Phu

In 1946, war broke out between communist insurgents in N Vietnam, called the Viet Minh, and the French Colonial government.In spring of 1954, the Viet Minh surrounded and destroyed the primary French fortress in N. Vietnam at Dien Bien Phu

45

celebrar

to celebrate

46

la Navidad

Christmas



49

Domino Theory

1957 - It stated that if one country fell to Communism, it would undermine another and that one would fall, producing a domino effect.

50

"I have a dream" speech

Given August 1963 from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

51

March on Washington, 1963

August - 200,000 demonstrators converged on the Lincoln Memorial to hear Dr. King's speech and to celebrate Kennedy's support for the civil rights movement.

52

Medgar Evers

Director of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his driveway by a member of the Ku Klux Klan.

53

Malcom X

One-time pimp and street hustler, converted to a Black Muslim while in prison. At first urged Blacks to seize their freedom by any means necessary, but later changed position and advocated racial harmony. He was assassinated in February, 1965.

54

Stokely Carmichael

In 1966, as chair of SNCC, he called to assert Black Power. Supporting the Black Panthers, he was against integration.

55

Black Panthers

Led by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, they believed that racism was an inherent part of the U.S. capitalist society and were militant, self-styled revolutionaries for Black Power.

56

Black Muslims

Common name for the Nation of Islam, a religion that encouraged separatism from White society. They claimed the "White Devil" was the chief source of evil in the world.

57

Angela Davis

Black Communist college professor affiliated with the Black Panthers, she was accused of having been involved in a murderous jail-break attempt by that organization.

58

Black Power

A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.

59

Twenty-Fourth Amendment

1964 - It outlawed taxing voters, i.e. poll taxes, at presidential or congressional elections, as an effort to remove barriers to Black voters.

60

Kerner Commission on Civil Disorders

In 1968, this commission, chaired by Otto Kerner, decided that the race riots were due to the formation of two different American cultures: inner-city Blacks and suburban Whites.

61

White Backlash

Resistance to Black demands led by "law and order" advocates whose real purpose was to oppose integration.

62

Thurgood Marshall

In 1967, appointed the first Black Supreme Court Justice, he had led that NAACP's legal defense fund and had argued the Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case before the Supreme Court.

63

Voting Rights Act, 1965

Passed by Congress in 1965, it allowed for supervisors to register Blacks to vote in places where they had not been allowed to vote before.

64

Viet Cong

Name given to the guerilla fighters on the Communist side. The North Vietnamese Army (NVA) were regular troops.

65

Dien Bien Phu

In 1946, war broke out between communist insurgents in North Vietnam, called the Viet Minh, and the French Colonial government. In the spring of 1954, the Viet Minh surrounded and destroyed the primary French fortress in North Vietnam at Dien Bien Ph

66

Geneva Conference, 1954

French wanted out of Vietnam , the agreement signed by Ho Chi Minh France divided Vietnam on the 17th parallel, confining Minh's government to the North. In the South, an independent government was headed by Diem.

67

National Liberation Front (NLF)

Official title of the Viet Cong. Created in 1960, they lead an uprising against Diem's repressive regime in the South.

68

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

August, 1964 - After the U.S. Navy ship Maddux reportedly was fired on, the U.S. Congress passed this resolution which gave the president power to send troops to Vietnam to protect against further North Vietnamese aggression.

69

Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)

An area that both militaries are required to stay out of in order to create a buffer between nations. In Vietnam, a five mile wide DMZ was established between the North and South along the 17th parallel.

70

Domino Theory

1957 - It stated that if one country fell to Communism, it would undermine another and that one would fall, producing a domino effect.