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onset:15-30min peak: 1.5-2hrs Monitor blood glucose before meal/insulin admin assess for symptoms of hypoglycemia Glucagon- reverse hypoglycemic symptoms


Heprin anticoagulant

clients only start on heprin (Short half life, 90min) given with warfirin no vit k watch for bleeding, PTT, aPTT, INR antidote: protomine sulfate


Warfarin (Coumadin) Anticoagulant

watch for bleeding hypotension antidote: vit K tea colored urine, tarry stool, no garlic or ginger PTT: 25-40sec aPTT: 1-2x clients baseline PT 12-15 sec INR 2.0-3.5


levothyroxine (Synthroid)

Thyroid agent, narrow range increases metabolic rate, assess vitals, pulse and BP AE; tachycardia, irregular HR, hypertension, symptoms of hyperthyroidism Contra; Addisons, diabetes take on empty stomach take long time to work report fatigue, slo



inhibit prostaglandins, reduce inflammation masks symptoms of Infections Cushing's syndrome Risk (long term therapy) Contra- systemic fungal infections, immunocompromised watch Na/K level, increases excretion take w/ milk/food


Epinephrine (Adrenalin)

drug of choice for anaphylaxis cardiac output increases reverse hypotension vasoconstricts promotes bronchodilation report burning, irritation, tenderness, swelling at IV sight, changes in consciousness, palpitations, chest pain, nausea, vomitin



For Rocky Mountain Spotted fever, Lyme disease, peptic ulcers risk superinfections AE: photosensitivity, GI discomfort, Heart burn No milk, mg, iron sup, mg-laxatives, antacids


Nasal Decongestents oxymetazoine (Afrin) ipratropium (Atrovent)

anticholinergic relive nasal congestion AE; rebound congestion use no more than 3 days report- palpitations, chestpain, dizziness, fainting, visual changes, excessive dry mouth, confusions, numbness, tingling


Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)

directly loosens thick, viscous brochial secretions break down chemical structure only inhalation given in case of overdose of acetominophen can trigger bronchiospasm and has offensive rotten egg odor


Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

antihistamine that blocks action of histamine at H1 receptor site relief allergy, motion sickness, insomnia CNS depression, drowsiness, anticholinergic (crying effects) report- diff urinating, blurred vision/ eye pain avoid smoking/driving


Nasal Allergic Rhinitis Flonase Nasonex (mometasone)

treat allergic rhinitis decrease secretions of inflammatory mediators relives edema causes mild vasoconstriction


Erythromycin Macrolide

whooping cough, streptococcus infections contra- exacerbate HRT disease drug-drug: carbamazepine monitor clients on coumadine lowers metabolism excretions watch INR levels No fruit juices report skin rashes, yellow skin, dark urine, pale stools



pneumonia, meningitis, skin, bone, joint AE; allergic response is most common, hypokalemia, hypernutremia watch renal function monitor clients for 30min after first dose take with food report: GI discomfort, cramping diarrhea


Albuterol (Proventil)

bronchiodilator for asthma, relax smooth muscle quick acting AE; rebound bronchospasm, chest pain, repiratory distress, tachycardia limit caffeine use, immediatly report diff breathing, heart palpitations saliva may turn pink


Phenytoin (Dilantin) hydantoin

narrow therapeutic range, monitor serum levels assess for signs of toxicitity, dizziness, diplopia, lethargy monitor glucose levels (increases levels) drug to drug- avoid herbal laxatives (senna)


Phenothiazines prochlorpromazine (Thorazine)

effective in treating signs schizo anticholenergic effects extraparamidal symptoms Nonphenothiazines -same above but less anticholinec and EPS watch for dizziness, loss of consciousness, seizures no alcohol or caffeine take long to work


Aspirin antiplatelet anticoagulant

160-325mg aspirin is given as soon as MI is suspected assess for bleeding esp GI



reduces fecer directly at hypothalamus and dilation of peripheral blood vessels AE; GI irritation, nausea, chills, abdominal discomfort drug-drug- warfarin interferes with metabolism contra- liver disease, viral hepatisis, cirrhosis, alcoholism



suppress GI tracts AE; respiratory depression, sedation, nausea, vomiting take vitals, avoid alcohol, antidote: narcon if RR falls below 10bpm drug-drug- alcohol, other opiods, MAOI's anesthetics report: vomiting, diarrhea


Bulk forming Laxative

absorb water assess clients ability to swallow may take 24 to 48 hrs to have effect drink water 8fl oz


Psyllium muccilloid (metamucil)

may take 1 to 3 days to work take with a lot of water cramping, stimulant, typer laxative drug-drug warfarin


ace inhibitors

block effects of angiotensin II AE: angio-edema, first dose phenomenon, orthostatic hypotension, persistent cough. Take at bedtime watch for laryngeal swelling report diff breathing, hives, rash, cramps expect dry cough avoid vit K


Beta- adrenergic blockers

decrease HR affects myocardial conduction and contractility slow heart rate/ cause bronchioconstriction rebound HTN, angina, MI assess apical pulse, hold if below 90/60, signs resp. distress, bradycardia, heart block, fatigue, blood glucose level


cardiac glycosides

heart beats more forcefully and slowly, imp output used in advanced HF AE; fatigue, drowsiness, dizziness, visual disturbances (Halos), anorexia nausea monitor K, hypokalemic eat lots of vit K


Dobutamin (Dobutrex)

inotropic agent increases myocardial contractility IV infusion, 2min Half life AE: dysrhythmia, gangrene, hypertension monitor vitals and watch for dysrhythmias report numbness/tingling


Nitroglycerin organic nitrate

relaxes smooth muscle reduces; output, workload, oxygen demand, pain short acting, sublingual orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia drug-drug: viagra no alcohol report vision changes, dry mouth, severe headache take every 5 min for 15min


Digoxin (Lanoxin)

increases contractility narrow t range AE; visual disturbances, hypokalemia, nausea, vomitting, fatigue, anorexia take apical pulse 1 full min, report <60 or >100 increase vit K weigh self daily, report 2lb gain



alkaline compounds (aluminum, mg, Na, Calcium act with in 10 to 15 min last 2hrs limit sodium intake 2hrs before 4hrs after



prevent nausea/vomiting inhibiting dopamine/serotonin receptors scopalamin -motion sickness take 20-60min before travel


metoclopromide (Reglan)

phenothiazine antiemetic associated with antineoplastic therapy AE: EPA symptoms, neuropletic malignant syndrome photo sensitivity move slowly report vomiting/blood in vomit/ abdominal pain


Tagamet (cimetidine)

H2-receptor blocker neutralize gastric enzymes avoid alcohol, smoking, spicy food, gas-forming foods, cola, coffee report abnormal stool consistency


Sacaralfate (Carafate)

PUD treatment sugar+ aluminum hydroxide thick gell like substance that coats the ulcer and protects it take 4 time daily