BIO EXAM26 cards

Tagged as: biology, microbiology, biochemistry, algebra, fitness, math, medical, medicine, nursing, astronomy

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What is atomic number

The atomic number is equal to the number of protons in an atom's nucleus. The atomic number determines which element an atom is.


Definition of alleles

Alternative versions of a gene


Definition of crossing over

the interchange of corresponding chromatid segments of homologous chromosomes with their linked genes.


Stages of meiosis when crossing over happens

during Meiosis 1 / Prophase 1.


Organelle where translation happens

Translation occurs in the ribosome


Functions of the nucleus

where DNA does its work: Sequences of DNA are transcribed (copied) into fragments of messenger RNA (mRNA), which are then sent to the ribosomes to control the manufacture of proteins during cell growth and reproduction. So the function of the nucleus is to send out copies of the blueprints for building proteins, which


Stages of mitosis

interphase prophase metaphase anaphase telephase cytokinesis


Definition of hypothesis

An educated guess


The enzyme that is involved in replication of DNA

Topoisomerase, Helicase, DNA polymerase III, RNA polymerase, DNA polymerase I, DNA ligase


Definition of Osmosis

The diffusion of water across a differentially (selectively) permeable membrane due to concentration differences Low to high


Monomers of polysaccharides

monosacharides (simple carbohydrates)


Definition of organic molecule

substances found in living things, the four main classes


Definition of coupling reaction

are reactions that occur in the same place, at the same time, and in such a way that an energy-releasing (exergonic) reaction drives an energy requiring(endergonic) reaction


Definition of metabolism

the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in a cell


Funtions of the genetic material-

Direct the replication of genetic material (and allow for rare mutations) Direct the assembly of a specific gene product (protein or RNA)


Definition of diffusion-

The movement of molecules from a higher to a lower concentration..that is, down their concentration.


Definition of active transport

molecules or ions move through the plasma membrane accumulating either inside or outside the cell.


Definition of Ph scale

a scale used to measure the acidity or basicity of a solution..


Monomers of protein

amino acid


What is a punnet sqare-

allows us to easily calculate the chances or the probability of genotypes an phenotypes among the offspring.


Monomers of lipids-

fatty acids and glycerol


Energy related organelles-

nuvleus, mitochondria,vacuoles, cell membrane plants have these 2 additional organelles: chloroplasts and cell walls


Characteristics of enzymes-

It is not used up and does not change shape in a reaction. 2. It is used to speed up a reaction 3. Will only bind to another molecule as long as the enzyme substrate complex can form(see lock and key theory)


Characteristics of homologous chromosomes

Homologous chromosomes have the same shape, size and position of the centromere. They have the same genes in the same order.


Definition of apoptosis

a type of cell death in which the cell uses specialized cellular machinery to kill itself