Biol 112C Exam III Part I50 cards

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1

allele

a variant form of a gene

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Mendel's law of segregation

two alleles of a gene separate (segregate) during the formation of eggs and sperm so that gametes receive only one allele

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genotype

genetic composition of an individual

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homozygous

two identical alleles

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heterozygous

two different alleles of a gene

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phenotype

refers to the characteristics of an organism that are the result of the expression of its genes

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dihybrid cross or two-factor cross

follow simultaneously the cross of two genes at once; offspring that are hybrids with respect to both traits

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law of independent assortment

the alleles of different genes assort independently of each other during gamete forma

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locus

physical location of a gene on a chromosome

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pedigree analysis

an inherited trait is analyzed over the course of a few generations in one family

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sex linked genes

found on one sex chromosome but not the other

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wild-type allele

the prevalent allele in a population

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mutant allele

the rare allele in a natural population

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incomplete dominance

the heterozygote carries two different alleles and exhibits a phenotype that is intermediate between the corresponding homozygous individuals

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codominance

phenomenon in which a single individual expresses both alleles

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sex-influenced inheritance

the phenomenon in which an allele is dominant in one sex but recessive in the other

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gene expression

the process by which the information within a gene is made into a functional product, such as a protein or RNA molecule

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gene regulation

refers to the ability of cells to control the eexpression of their genes

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constitutive genes

genes that have relatively constnat levels of expression in all conditions over time

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lactose permease

facilitiates the uptake of lactose into the cell

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beta-galactosidase

catalyzes the breakdown of lactose

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genome

set of genes in all cells

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proteome

the collection of proteins a cell makes, varies from cell type to cell type

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regulatory transcription factors

proteins that bind to DNA in the vicinity of a promoter and affect the rate of transcription of one or more nearby genes

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repressors, lac repressor

transcription factors that bind to the DNA and inhibit transcription, under negative control;

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activators

bind to the DNA and increase the rate of transcription, under positive control

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small effector molecules, allolactose

binds to a regulatory transcription factor and causes a conformational change in the protein; when in the cytoplasm, binds to the repressor and inhibits the ability of the protein to bind to the DNA

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operator, lac O site

regulatory region of an operon, binding site for a repressor protein

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operon, lac operon

clustered structural genes, under transcriptional control of a single promoter, transcription occurs as a single unit; lac operon allows for metabolism of lactose

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polycistronic mRNA

an mRNA that encodes more than one protein

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CAP site

DNA sequence recognized by the activator protein

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lacI gene

encodes the lac repressor, regulatory gene that encodes protein to regulate the expression of other genes

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trp operon

encodes enzymes that are required to make the amino acid tryptophan, a building block of cellular proteins

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virus

small infectious particle that consists of nucleic acid enclosed in a protein coat

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host cell

cell that is infected by a virus

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capsid

protein coat of a virus, encloses the genome consisting of one or more molecules of nucleic acid

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viral envelope

some viruses have, encloses the capsid, derived from the plasma membrane of the host cell

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bacteriophages

viruses that infect bacteria

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viral reproductive cycle

attachment, entry, integration, synthesis of viral components, release

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prophage

what phage DNA is called once it is integrated into bacterium DNA

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lysogenic cycle

when virus exists as a prophage, dormant, lysogenic bacteria copies the prophage DNA along with its own DNA

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reverse transcriptase

uses the viral RNA strand to make a complementary copy of DNA so it can become double stranded and integrate into host cell DNA

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provirus

the viral DNA in a eukaryotic cell, once integrated

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lytic cycle

lead to cell lysis, phage must burst host cell in order to escape, lysozyme digests the bacterial cell wall

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latent

prophage or provirus remain inactive in host cell

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episome

a genetic element that can replicate independently of the chromosomal DNA but can also occasionally integrate into chromosomal DNA

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viroid

RNA molecule devoid of any protein, infects plant cells, replicated in the host cell nucleus or chloroplasts

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prions

group of rare, fatal brain diseases affecting humans and other mammals, composed entirely of proteins, proteinaceous infectious agent, ability of the prion protein induces abnormal folding in normal protein molecules, transmissible spongiform encepha

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nucleoid region

bacterial chromosomes tightly packed, not separate cellular compartment bounded by a membrane

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loop domains

chromosomal segments folded into loops