Biol 112C Exam III Part II44 cards

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1

loop domains

chromosomal segments that are folded into loops, bacteria have them

2

DNA supercoiling

compaction by enzymes called topoisomerases that twist the DNA and control the degree of supercoiling, compact bacterial chromosome

3

resistance plasmids

R factors, contain genes that confer resistance against antibiotics and other types of toxins

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degradative plasmids

carry genes that enable the bacterium to digest and utilize an unusual substance

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col-plasmids

contain genes that encode colicins, whcih are proteins that kill other bacteria

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virulence plasmids

carry genes that turn a bacterium into a pathogenic strain

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fertility plasmids

F factors, allow bacteria to mate with each other and for donor bacteria to pass genetic material to other cell via sex pili

8

binary fission

bacterial replication, results in two daughter cells that are identical copy of mother

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conjugation

involves a direct physical interaction between two bacterial cells, donor and recipient bacterium

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transformation

DNA that is released into the environment is taken up by another bacterial cell

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transduction

occurs when a virus infects a bacterial cell and then transfers some of that cell's DNA to another bacterium

12

sex pili

made by F+ cells that bind specifically to F- cells

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competent

bacterium that have the ability to take up DNA and be transformed

14

horizontal gene transfer

process in which an organism incorporates genetic material from another organism without being the offspring of that organism

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innate immunity

the body's defenses are present at birth and act against foreign materials in much the same way regardless of the specific identity of the invading material

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acquired immunity "specific immunity"

develops only after the body is exposed to foreign substances, ability of certain cells of the immune system to recognize a foreign substance and initate a response that targets the substance specifically

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pathogens

disease-causing microorganisms

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phagocytes

phagocytosis, cell engulfs particulate matter, which usually is then destroyed by proteases or oxidizing compounds

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leukocytes

white blood cells

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inflammation

an innate local response to infection or injury, destroys or inactivates foreign invaders, clears the infected region of dead cells and other debris, sets the stage for tissue repair, done by phagocytes

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antigen

any molecule that can trigger a specific immune response, the host does not recognize as self

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lymphocytes

type of leukocyte, reside in lymphatic system organs

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plasma cells

synthesize and secrete antibodies, proteins that bind to and help destroy foreign molecules, mature B cells

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cytotoxic T cells

travel to the location of their targets, bind by recognizing an antigen, and directly kill those targets via secreted chemicals require class I MHC proteins for activation which are present on all nucleated cells

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helper T cells

assist in the activation and function of B cells and cytotoxic T cells can only bind antigen when the antigen appears on the plasma membrane of a host cell complexed with the cell's class II MHC proteins

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humoral immunity

plasma cells secrete antibodies that bind to antigens, plasma cells

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cell-mediated immunity

cytotoxic T cells directly encounter and destroy infected body cells, cancerous cells

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effector cells

plasma cells and cytotoxic T cells

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memory cells

remain to recognize the antigen if it returns in the future

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antibodies

proteins that travel all over the body to reach antigens identical those that stimulated their production

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immunoglobulin molecule (Ig)

composed of two heavy chains and two short light chains, have variable region that specifically recognizes a particular antigen IgM, IgC, IgE, IgA, IgD

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IgM

first produced after antigen exposed

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IgG

most abundant Ig class

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IgE

mediate allergic responses

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Fc region/constant region

stem of heavy chains of an immunoglobulin, contains amino acid sequence that is identical for all Ig's of a given class

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clonal selection

lymphocyte proliferation is selected by exposure to an antigen

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major histocompatibility complex (MHC)

plasma membrane proteins that must be complexed with an antigen in order for T-cell recognition

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Class I MHC

found on the surface of all human body cells

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Class II MHC

found primarily on the surface of macrophages, B cells

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antigen presenting cells (APC)

macrophages, present class II MHC/antigen complexes to helper T cells macrophage digests antigen and then presents epitope and class II MHC complex on surface

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epitope

antigenic determinant

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clonal deletion

process by which T cells with receptors capable of binding self proteins are destroyed by apoptosis

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active immunity

i.e. vaccination

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passive immunity

protection against a disease through the direct transfer of antibodies from one individual to another