Biology chapter 6/7 test 201129 cards

Tagged as: astronomy, biology, microbiology, nursing, physiology, biochemistry

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1

Describe the structure of the plasma membrane(lipid bilayer).

The plasma membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer that has 2 layers of phospholipid back to back


3

why is lipid bilayer reffered to as a fluid mosaic?

because it is flexible they call it a "fluid" and because of all the proteins embedded in the membrane they call it a "mosaic"

4

name 3 major differences between a plant cell and an animal cell

the cell wall, chloroplasts, and central vcuole all in the plant cell ONLY

5

what is a cytoskeleton?

it supports the structure in cells

6

which way does water move in a hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solution?

hypertonic: the water moves out of the cell hypotonic: the water moves into the cell isotonic: the water moves evenly out and in the cell

7

what are ALL the organelles found in an eukaryotic cell?

lysosome, mitochondria, cytoplasm, endoplamic reticulum, chloroplasts, ribosome, golgi apparatus, cytoskeleton, cell wall, plasma membrane, vacuole, nucleus, and nucleolus

8

what is the main difference between a eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell?

the prokaryotic cell DOES NOT have a cell membrane

9

what are the 3 main points of the cell theory?

-all cells come from other cells -the basic building block of organization in an organism is a cell -all organisms are made up of cells

10

what are organic molecules?

carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids

11

what is the function of a ribosoome?

the ribosome turns DNA into RNA

12

what is the function of the mitochondria? chloroplast?

mitochondria- production of energy chloroplast- makes glucose [food for the cell]

13

explain the difference between chemical and physical properties.

chemical properties describe the substance or elements chemical make up and physicval properties only describe its physical appearance

14

what is the role of the lysosome?

they digest excess or worn out material not needed by the cell

15

define a polymer.

polymer- a long chain of monomers

16

what is the longest phase of the cell cycle?

interphase [G1, G2, Synthesis]

17

what is osmosis, passive transport, active transport, and facilitated transport?

passive transport- the movement of particles acroos the plasma membrane the DOES NOT require energy active transport- movement of materials through the membrane against concentration gradient DOES require energy facilitated diffusion- passive transport acroos membrane WITH the help of proteins DOES NOT require energy osmosis- diffusion of water acr

18

on a diagram how can you tell the difference between a chloroplast and a mitochondria?

chloroplast is GREEN and has DOTS while mitochondria is PURPLE and has SQUIGGLES


20

what is the difference between hydrolisis and condensation?

hydrolisis- breaks bonds and requires water condensation- makes bonds and makes water

21

what do ribosome do and where are they in the cell?

ribosomes make RNA into DNA and are found in the cytoplasm and the nucleus

22

define selective permeability and what allows cell to have slective permeablility?

selective permeability is a feature of the plasma membrane and the cell membrane must only allow certain things to enter and leave the cell to have this feature

23

what are enzymes and what do they do?

enzymes are proteins and they increase the rate of chemical reactions

24

what is the role of the golgi apparatus?

it transports thing around the cell

25

what is the role of the endoplasmic reticulum?

the endoplasmic reticulum is the cite of all chemical reactions inside the cell

26

why are proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates polymers? what are their building blocks?

they are all chains of monomers and proteins- disacchardies nucleic acids- monosaccharides carbohydrates- polysaccharides

27

define grana and thylakiod membrane

grana- inside chloroplasts the inner membrane that is arranged in stacks of membranous sacs thylakiod- the outer membrane of the chloroplast

28

what is the benefit of electron microscopes?

they use a beam of electrons instead of light to magnify structures up to 500,000 times which is their actual size

29

what is the benefit of having highly folded membranes?

it increases the available suface area for movement of particles into and out of the cell