Biology30 cards

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1

Nucleic Acids

- large molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. -store and process an organism's hereditary information

2

Four Main categories of organic chemicals

Carbohydrates- Lipids-Protiens- Nucleic acids

3

Carbohydrates

-saccharides (sugars) -best energy source for the human body -most abundant organic molecules in organisms

4

Lipids

-oils, waxes, and fats, are long-chain organic compounds that are hydrophobic -Fatty acids are energy-storing lipids

5

Protiens

-Individual amino acids combine to form proteins -The final shape of a protein is either globular or fibrous -The shape of a protein molecule determines its function

6

Enzymes

-Enzymes serve as catalysts for biochemical reactions -

7

Eukaryotic Cells

HAVE a NUCLEUS and ORGANELLES plant, animal, and fungal cells are eukaryotic

8

cytology

The study of cells

9

Lysosome

-Provides DIGESTION in the cell -"Lyse"means to break open or break apart

10

The Nucleus

-Contains the cells genetic library

11

mitochondria

-endless production of ATP -the cells "respiration" -energy is extracted from food

12

Ribosome

Small complexes of RNA and protein that are the sites of protein synthesis

13

The two types of nucleic acid

1) DNA exists in the nucleus of our cells 2) RNA is a messenger unit that occurs both inside and outside the nucleus

14

Cell Theory

-all living things are composed of cells -all cells arise from preexisting cells through cell division -cells contain hereditary material, which they pass to daughter cells during cell division -the chemical composition of all cells is quite similar

15

prokaryotic cells

-they SURVIVE as BACTERIA and ARCHAEBACTERIA -they have NO NUCLEUS

16

Parts of a cell

-a barrier called PLASMA MEMBRANE (animals) -a fluid called CYTOSOL, which supports multiple types of organelles - a NUCLEUS

17

plants cells

Have organelles not found in animal cells

18

diffusion

-movement of a substance toward an area of lower concentration -diffusion of water = osmosis

19

Passive Transport

-includes FILTRATION, DIFFUSION, and FACILITATED DIFFUSION -NO ENERGY IS CONSUMED

20

Facilitated diffusion

-the lipid bilayer has integral and peripheral proteins that serve as CHANNELS and RECEPTORS for aqueous SOLUTES to enter and exit the cell

21

Active Transport

-ENERGY IS CONSUMED (Low to High Concentration)

22

endocytosis

-extracellular molecules and particles are taken into the cell via vesicle formation

23

exocytosis

-is used to remove secretory products or waste products from the cell

24

Organelle

the components of a cell

25

Flagella and cilia

Flagella- SINGLE, long whip like structure that propels it forward Cilia- shorter extensions that look like hair

26

Endoplasmic Reticulum

rough ER- manufactures protiens. smooth ER-manufactures carbohydrates and lipids

27

Plasma membrane

controls the movement in and out of the cell

28

centriole

complex assembly of microtubles that occur in pairs

29

nucleolus

command center of cell

30

gogli complex

collects packages and distributes molecules manufactured in the cell