Chapter 10: Bonding32 cards

Tagged as: geometry, biochemistry, nursing, chemistry

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6

Molecular Geometry

Lone pairs are not included in molecular geometry shape

7

A

Center atom

8

E

Each lone pair counts as one charge cloud

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X

Number of outer atoms

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AX2 Shape? Bond Angle?

Two outer atoms + no lone pairs Linear 180

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AX3 Shape? Bond Angle?

Three outer atoms + no lone pairs Trigonal-planar 120

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AX2E Shape? Bond Angle?

Two outer atoms + one lone pair Bent Less than 120 (119)

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AX4 Shape? Bond Angle?

Four outer atoms + no lone pairs Tetrahedral 109.5

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AX3E Shape? Bond Angle?

Three outer atoms + one lone pair Trigonal-pyramidal Less than 109.5 (107.5)

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AX2E2 Shape? Bond Angle?

Two outer atoms + two lone pairs Bent Less than 109.5 (104.5)

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AX5 Shape? Bond Angle?

Five outer atoms +no lone pairs Trigonal-bipyramidal 90, 120

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AX4E Shape? Bond Angle?

Four outer atoms + one lone pair see-saw Less than 90, 120 (Less than 180 and 120 ~ 173.1, 101.6)

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AX3E2 Shape? Bond Angle?

Three outer atoms + two lone pairs T-Shaped Less than 90 (87.5)

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AX2E3 Shape? Bond Angle?

Two outer atoms + three lone pairs Linear 180

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AX6 Shape? Bond Angle?

Six outer atoms + no lone pairs Octahedral 90

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AX5E Shape? Bond Angle?

Five outer atoms + one lone pair Square-pyramidal Less than 90 (84.8)

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AX4E2 Shape? Bond Angle?

Four outer atoms + two lone pairs Square-planar 90

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Ionic Bonds

transfer of electron metal and non metal

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Covalent Bonds

sharing of electrons two non metals

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Formal Charge

valence electrons in free atom + lone pair electrons + number of bond pairs

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When to use formal charge....

Use the formal charge when you get into a situation where all of the structures look good and you can't decide as well as when the formal charge on the center atom is + or - a number and the molecule is not an ion...the configuration is not correct.


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Expanded Valence Shells

Period 3 and Up These atoms that have d orbitals can hold up to 12 electrons.

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Electronegativity

the ability of an atom to attract electrons in a covalent bond

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Dipole Moment

product of a partial charge and distance (bond length)

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Dipole Moment is expressed using an arrow with a cross base arrow

The arrow points toward the atom with the higher EN

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Net Dipole Moment

A molecule will have a net dipole moment only if the individual dipole moments of the bonds do not cancel each other out