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Chapter 13 Management28 cards
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set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes ppl persist in efforts overtime to accomplish a goal.
Job perf. is multiplicative function of motivation x skills x situational constraints
Physical or psychological requirements that must be met to ensure survival/well-being. Two general kinds: lower-order needs, higher-order needs
Ask people what their needs are Satisfy lower-order needs first Expect people's needs to change Satisfy higher-order needs by looking for ways to allow employees to experience intrinsic rewards
Inputs, outputs, and referents.
Employees compare their outcomes to their inputs
Employees compare their O/I ratio with O/I ratio of a referent, employee who works similar job/similar on other ways.
Underreward: referent's O/I ratio is better than Employee's O/I ratio, leads to anger or frustration. Overreward: referent's O/I ratio is worse than Employee's O/I ratio, can lead to guilt but only when overreward is extreme.
1. Correct major inequities 2. reduce employees' inputs 3. ensure fair decision-making process.
3 factors affect conscious choices ppl make about their motivation: valence, expectancy, and instrumentality. A drop in any of these factors can decrease motivation.
1. Find out what employees want from their jobs 2. Link rewards to individual performance in a clear and understandable way. 3. Empower employees with decision making to make them believe that hard work/effort will lead to good performance.
Behavior is a function of its consequences. Two parts: reinforcement contingencies and schedules of reinforcement.
Positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement: strengthen behavior Punishment and extinction: weaken behavior
Continuous and intermittent. Intermittent schedules divided into fixed and variable interval schedules and fixed and variable ratio schedules.
1. Identify/measure/analyze/intervene/evaluate critical performance-related behaviors. 2. Don't reinforce wrong behaviors. 3. Correctly administer punishment at appropriate time 4. Choose simplest/most effective schedules of reinforfcement
Ppl will be motivated to the extent of their acceptance of specific, challenging goals and receive feedback indicating their progress toward goal achievement.
Goal specificity: how detailed, exact, and unambiguous a goal is. Goal difficulty: how hard or challenging a goal is to accomplish. Goal Acceptance: extent to which ppl consciously understand and agree to goals. Performance Feedback: info about qu
1. Assign specific, challenging goals. 2. Make sure workers truly accept organizational goals. 3. Provide frequent, specific, performance-related feedback.
Tangible, visible to others, given to employees contingent on performance of specific tasks or behaviors.
Natural reward associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake.
perceived degree to which outcomes/rewards are fairly distributed.
perceived fairness of the process used to determine distribution of rewards.
Schedule that requires consequence to be administered following every instance of the behavior.
consequences are delivered after specified or average time has passed or after specified/average # of behaviors has occurred.
intermittent schedule in which consequences follow behavior only after fixed time has passed.
time between behavior and consequence varies around specified average.
consequences delivered following specific # of behaviors.
consequences delivered following variable # of behaviors ranging around specified average # of behaviors.
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