Chapter 13 Management28 cards

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What is motivation?

set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes ppl persist in efforts overtime to accomplish a goal.


How does motivation relate to job performance?

Job perf. is multiplicative function of motivation x skills x situational constraints


What are needs?

Physical or psychological requirements that must be met to ensure survival/well-being. Two general kinds: lower-order needs, higher-order needs


How can management use motivation to increase efforts of employees?

Ask people what their needs are Satisfy lower-order needs first Expect people's needs to change Satisfy higher-order needs by looking for ways to allow employees to experience intrinsic rewards


What are the basic components of equity theory?

Inputs, outputs, and referents.


Internal Comparison

Employees compare their outcomes to their inputs


External Comparison

Employees compare their O/I ratio with O/I ratio of a referent, employee who works similar job/similar on other ways.


Two kinds of inequity

Underreward: referent's O/I ratio is better than Employee's O/I ratio, leads to anger or frustration. Overreward: referent's O/I ratio is worse than Employee's O/I ratio, can lead to guilt but only when overreward is extreme.


Motivating with Equity Theory

1. Correct major inequities 2. reduce employees' inputs 3. ensure fair decision-making process.


Expectancy Theory

3 factors affect conscious choices ppl make about their motivation: valence, expectancy, and instrumentality. A drop in any of these factors can decrease motivation.


Motivating with Expectancy Theory

1. Find out what employees want from their jobs 2. Link rewards to individual performance in a clear and understandable way. 3. Empower employees with decision making to make them believe that hard work/effort will lead to good performance.


Reinforcement Theory

Behavior is a function of its consequences. Two parts: reinforcement contingencies and schedules of reinforcement.


4 kinds of reinforcement contingencies

Positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement: strengthen behavior Punishment and extinction: weaken behavior


2 Kinds of reinforcement schedules

Continuous and intermittent. Intermittent schedules divided into fixed and variable interval schedules and fixed and variable ratio schedules.


Motivating with Reinforcement Theory

1. Identify/measure/analyze/intervene/evaluate critical performance-related behaviors. 2. Don't reinforce wrong behaviors. 3. Correctly administer punishment at appropriate time 4. Choose simplest/most effective schedules of reinforfcement


Goal-setting Theory

Ppl will be motivated to the extent of their acceptance of specific, challenging goals and receive feedback indicating their progress toward goal achievement.


What are the basic components of goal-setting theory?

Goal specificity: how detailed, exact, and unambiguous a goal is. Goal difficulty: how hard or challenging a goal is to accomplish. Goal Acceptance: extent to which ppl consciously understand and agree to goals. Performance Feedback: info about qu


Motivating with Goal-setting theory

1. Assign specific, challenging goals. 2. Make sure workers truly accept organizational goals. 3. Provide frequent, specific, performance-related feedback.


Extrinsic Reward

Tangible, visible to others, given to employees contingent on performance of specific tasks or behaviors.


Intrinsic Reward

Natural reward associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake.


Distributive Justice

perceived degree to which outcomes/rewards are fairly distributed.


Procedural Justice

perceived fairness of the process used to determine distribution of rewards.


Continuous reinforcement schedule

Schedule that requires consequence to be administered following every instance of the behavior.


Intermittent reinforcement schedule

consequences are delivered after specified or average time has passed or after specified/average # of behaviors has occurred.


Fixed Interval Reinforcement Schedule

intermittent schedule in which consequences follow behavior only after fixed time has passed.


Variable Interval Reinforcement Schedule

time between behavior and consequence varies around specified average.


Fixed ratio reinforcement

consequences delivered following specific # of behaviors.


Variable ratio reinforcement

consequences delivered following variable # of behaviors ranging around specified average # of behaviors.