Chapter 13 Management28 cards

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1

What is motivation?

set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes ppl persist in efforts overtime to accomplish a goal.

2

How does motivation relate to job performance?

Job perf. is multiplicative function of motivation x skills x situational constraints

3

What are needs?

Physical or psychological requirements that must be met to ensure survival/well-being. Two general kinds: lower-order needs, higher-order needs

4

How can management use motivation to increase efforts of employees?

Ask people what their needs are Satisfy lower-order needs first Expect people's needs to change Satisfy higher-order needs by looking for ways to allow employees to experience intrinsic rewards

5

What are the basic components of equity theory?

Inputs, outputs, and referents.

6

Internal Comparison

Employees compare their outcomes to their inputs

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External Comparison

Employees compare their O/I ratio with O/I ratio of a referent, employee who works similar job/similar on other ways.

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Two kinds of inequity

Underreward: referent's O/I ratio is better than Employee's O/I ratio, leads to anger or frustration. Overreward: referent's O/I ratio is worse than Employee's O/I ratio, can lead to guilt but only when overreward is extreme.

9

Motivating with Equity Theory

1. Correct major inequities 2. reduce employees' inputs 3. ensure fair decision-making process.

10

Expectancy Theory

3 factors affect conscious choices ppl make about their motivation: valence, expectancy, and instrumentality. A drop in any of these factors can decrease motivation.

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Motivating with Expectancy Theory

1. Find out what employees want from their jobs 2. Link rewards to individual performance in a clear and understandable way. 3. Empower employees with decision making to make them believe that hard work/effort will lead to good performance.

12

Reinforcement Theory

Behavior is a function of its consequences. Two parts: reinforcement contingencies and schedules of reinforcement.

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4 kinds of reinforcement contingencies

Positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement: strengthen behavior Punishment and extinction: weaken behavior

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2 Kinds of reinforcement schedules

Continuous and intermittent. Intermittent schedules divided into fixed and variable interval schedules and fixed and variable ratio schedules.

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Motivating with Reinforcement Theory

1. Identify/measure/analyze/intervene/evaluate critical performance-related behaviors. 2. Don't reinforce wrong behaviors. 3. Correctly administer punishment at appropriate time 4. Choose simplest/most effective schedules of reinforfcement

16

Goal-setting Theory

Ppl will be motivated to the extent of their acceptance of specific, challenging goals and receive feedback indicating their progress toward goal achievement.

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What are the basic components of goal-setting theory?

Goal specificity: how detailed, exact, and unambiguous a goal is. Goal difficulty: how hard or challenging a goal is to accomplish. Goal Acceptance: extent to which ppl consciously understand and agree to goals. Performance Feedback: info about qu

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Motivating with Goal-setting theory

1. Assign specific, challenging goals. 2. Make sure workers truly accept organizational goals. 3. Provide frequent, specific, performance-related feedback.

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Extrinsic Reward

Tangible, visible to others, given to employees contingent on performance of specific tasks or behaviors.

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Intrinsic Reward

Natural reward associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake.

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Distributive Justice

perceived degree to which outcomes/rewards are fairly distributed.

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Procedural Justice

perceived fairness of the process used to determine distribution of rewards.

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Continuous reinforcement schedule

Schedule that requires consequence to be administered following every instance of the behavior.

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Intermittent reinforcement schedule

consequences are delivered after specified or average time has passed or after specified/average # of behaviors has occurred.

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Fixed Interval Reinforcement Schedule

intermittent schedule in which consequences follow behavior only after fixed time has passed.

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Variable Interval Reinforcement Schedule

time between behavior and consequence varies around specified average.

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Fixed ratio reinforcement

consequences delivered following specific # of behaviors.

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Variable ratio reinforcement

consequences delivered following variable # of behaviors ranging around specified average # of behaviors.