Chapters 25,26,2786 cards

Tagged as: government, history, physics, economics, criminal justic, law, act, lsat, education, business, music, art, medical, medicine, nursing, sat, religion, accounting

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1

Satellite State

Independent nation under control of a more powerful nation.

2

Cold War

Worldwide rivalry between the United States ad the Soviet Union.

3

Iron Curtain

Term coined by Winston Churchill to describe the border between the Soviet satellite states and Western Europe.

4

Truman Doctine

President Truman's promise to help nations straggling against communist movements.

5

George F. Kennan

An American diplomat and a leading authority on the Soviet Union.

6

Containment

Policy of keeping communism contained within its existing borders.

7

Marshall Plan

Foreign policy that offered economic aid to Western European countries after World War II.

8

Berlin Airlift

Program in which U.S. and British pilots flew supplies to West Berlin a soviet blockade.

9

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Military alliance formed to counter Soviet expansion.

10

Warsaw Pact

Military alliance of the Soviet Union and its satellite states.

11

Jiang Jieshi

-China's Nationalist leader. -Known in the United States as Chiang Kai-shek. -Fighting a civil war against communists led by Mao Zedong.

12

Mao Zedong

-Fighting a civil war against Jiang Jieshi.

13

38th parallel

Dividing line between North and South Korea.

14

Douglas MacArthur

-A General. -The World War II hero. -Had a bold plan to drive the invaders from South Korea.

15

Limited War

War fought to achieve only specific goals.

16

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)

Defensive alliance aimed at preventing communists aggression in Asia.

17

Arms Race

Contest in which nations compete to build more powerful weapons.

18

Mutually Assured Destuction

Policy in which the United States and the Soviet Union hoped to deter nuclear war by building up enough weapons to destroy one another.

19

John Foster Dulles

-Eisenhower's secretary of state. -Was an experienced diplomat who had helped organization the United Nations after World War II.

20

Massive Retaliation

Policy of threatening to use massive force in response to aggression.

21

Brinkmanship

Belief that only by going to the brink of war could the United States protect itself against communist aggression.

22

Nikita Khruschev

-Emerged as the new head of the Soviet Union.

23

Nationalize

To place a resource under government control.

24

Eisenhower Doctrine

Policy of President Eisenhower that stated that the United States would force to help any nation threatened by communism.

25

Suez Crisis

Attempt by France and Great Britain to seize control of the Suez Canal.

26

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

U.S. intelligence gathering organization.

27

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Government agency that coordinates U.S. efforts in space.

28

Red Scare

Fear that communists were working to destroy the American way of life.

29

Smith Act

Law that made it unlawful to teach or advocate the violent overthrow of the United States government.

30

House Un-american Activities Committee (HUAC)

Congressional committee that investigated possible subversive activities within the United States.

31

Hollywood Ten

Group of movie writers, directors, and producers who refused to answer HUAC questions about communists ties.

32

Blacklist

List of persons who were not hired because of suspected communist ties.

33

Alger Hiss

-Had been educated at Johns Hopkins University and Harvard Law School.

34

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

-Were from the poor, lower east side of Manhattan.

35

Joseph R. McCarthy

-A senator. -Charged that the State Department was infested with the State Department was infested with communist agents.

36

McCarthyism

Negative catchword for extreme, reckless charges of disloyalty.

37

Demoblization

Sending home members of the army.

38

GI Bill of Rights

Eased the return of World War II veterans by providing education and employment aid.

39

Baby Boom

Increase in births between 1945 and 1964.

40

Productivity

The rate at which goods are produced or services performed.

41

Taft-Hartley Act

A law that restricted the power of labor unions.

42

Fair Deal

President Truman's program to expand New Deal reforms.

43

Interstate Highway Act

1956 law that authorized the spending of $32 billion to build 41,000 miles of highway.

44

Sunbelt

Name given to the region of states in the South and the Southeast.

45

Service Sector

Businesses that provide services rather than manufactured goods.

46

Information Industry

Businesses that provide information services.

47

Franchise Business

To allow a company to distribute its products or services through retail outlets owned by independent operators.

48

Multinational Corporation

Companies that produce and sell their goods and services all over the world.

49

AFL-CIO

In 1955, the American Federation of labor (AFL)and the Congress of Industrial organization (CIO) labor unions unites

50

California Master Plan

Called for three tiers of higher education: research universities, state colleges, and community colleges, all of which were to be accessible to all of the state's citizens.

51

Consumerism

Large-scale buying, much of it on credit.

52

Median Family Income

Measure of average family income.

53

Nuclear Family

Ideal or typical household with a father, mother, and children.

54

Benjamin Spock

Sold the best-selling book of the era named "Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care."

55

Rock-and-Roll

Music originated in the gospel and blues traditions of African Americans.

56

Elvis Presley

Listened to a Memphis radio station that played African American gospel tunes.

57

Beatnik

Small group of writers and artists, in the 1950s and early 1960s, who were critical of Americans society.

58

Inner City

The older, central part of a city with crowded neighborhoods in which low-income, usually minority groups, live.

59

Urban Renewal

Network of churches and clubs that set up employment agencies and relief efforts to help African Americans get settled and find work in the cities.

60

Termination Policy

Ended all programs monitored by the Bureau of Indian affairs. It also ended federal responsibility for the health and welfare of Native Americans.

61

De Jure Segregation

Segregation imposed by law.

62

De Facto Segregation

Segregation by unwritten custom or tradition.

63

Thurgood Marshall

-An African American lawyer from Baltimore, Maryland, Headed the legal team that mounted this challenge.

64

Brown v. Board of Education

-A broader challenge to segregation public education at all grade levels.

65

Earl Warren

-Newly appointed Chief Justice

66

Civil Rights Act of 1957

Law that established a federal Civil Rights Commission.

67

Rosa Parks

-An African American seamstress. -Boarded a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and sat down in an empty seat.

68

Montgomery Bus Boycott

1955-1956 protest by African Americans in Montgomery, Alabama, against racial segregation in the bus system.

69

Martin Luther King, Jr.

-A Baptist Minister.

70

Sit-In

Form of protest where participants sit and refuse to move.

71

Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee (SNCC)

Grass-roots movement founded in 1960 by young civil rights activists.

72

Freedom Ride

1961 protest by activists who rode buses through southern states to test their compliance with the ban on segregation on interstate buses.

73

James Meredith

-Was an Air Force veteran who sought to enroll at all-white University of Mississippi, known as "Ole Miss."

74

Medgar Evens

-Civil Rights activists. -Instrumental in this effort.

75

March on Washington

1963 demonstration in which more than 200,000 people rallied for economic equality and civil rights.

76

Filibuster

Tactic by which senators give long speeches to hold up legislature business.

77

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Outlawed discrimination in public places and employment based on race, religion, or national origin

78

Freedom Summer

1964 effort to register African American voters in Mississippi.

79

Fannie Lou Hamer

-One of the MFDP's leaders. -Gave powerful testimony.

80

Voting Rights Act

Law that banned literacy tests and empowered the federal government to oversee voter registration.

81

Twenty-Fourth Amendment

Constitutional amendment that banned the poll tax as a voting requirement.

82

Kerner Commission

Group set up to investigate the causes of race riots in American cities in the 1960s.

83

Malcolm X

-Most well-known African American radical. -Was born Malcolm Little in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1925.

84

Nation of Islam

African American religious organization founded in 1930 that advocated separation of the races.

85

Black Power

Movement in the 1960s that urged African Americans to use their collective political and economic power to gain equality.

86

Black Panthers

Organization of militant African Americans founded in 1966.