Chemistry 67 cards

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2

Atoms come from the Greek word _____.

"undivisible"- indivisible

3

What are some of the problems associated with Dalton's Atomic Theory?

- Atoms can be divided, but only in a nuclear reaction - Does not account for isotopes (atoms of the same element but a diff. mass due to a diff. # of neutrons)

4

Describe J.J. Thompson's Plum Pudding Model and what did he discover.

The Plum Pudding Model: The pudding was positive and the plums were negative electron

5

Describe Ernest Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment and what did he discover.

Alpha particles were released as a thin beam towards a thin piece a gold foil. 98% of particles went straight through, 2% of the particles went through but were deflected by large angles, and about 1% of the particles bounced off the gold foil. There


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16

What is an atomic number?

All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons in the nucleus, Z

17

What is a mass number?

how much element weights in grams (mass # = # of protons + # neutrons)


19

How many types of quarks are there and what are their names?

up 2/3 charm 2/3 top 2/3 down -1/3 Strange -1/3 bottom -1/3 Six types

20

What is an isotope?

Atoms of same element (2) but different mass # (A)

21

What is an ion?

Atoms or groups of atoms with a positive or negative charge.

22

What are a cation and an anion?

Cation- forms when an atom loses one or more electrons Anion- (-)



25

What is electromagnetic radiation?

form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travel trough space

26

Define electromagnetic spectrum.

It is the visible light. Total range of electromagnetic radiation ranging from longest radio-waves to shortest and gamma rays

27

State the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.

Cannot simultaneously define the position and momentum of an electron.

28

Define Hund's Rule.

Electrons with the same spin occupy each energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite electron spin can occur.

29

What are valence electrons?

Electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals determine the chemical properties of an element.

30

Who discovered the periodic table and how did he arrange the P.T. ?

Dmitri Mendeleev. He arranged the P.T. according to the various properties and looked for trends or patterns arranged by increasing atomic mass


32

What is periodic law?

the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic #

33

Who discovered the Law if Triads? Give an example

Dobereiner ex: Ca Sr Ba (40+137)/2=88 40 88 137


35

Explain the Law of Octaves.

Atoms lose, gain, or shave electrons in order to acquire a full set of 8 valence electrons. After 8 elements similar physical / chemical properties reappeared.





40

Group 2 metals are called ___.

alkaline earth metal


42

Describe the properties of transition metals.

Transition metals are all metals, harder, denser, & higher melting points then group 1 & 2 except for mercury (liquid)



45

Describe the properties of lanthanide and actinide elements.

Lanthanide- shiny metals and similar in reactivity to group 2 Actinides- all radio active. 1st four are nature made, rest are man made.


47

Describe atomic radius.

Size goes down across prd. Size goes up down group

48

Describe ionic radius.

Cations are smaller. The attraction is higher so size decreases, anions are larger. Attraction has gone down & size decreases.

49

Describe ionization energy.

Energy required to remove an e- from an atom (in gas phase)

50

Describe electronegativity.

Indicates reactive ability of an element to attract electrons in chemical pond.

51

What are valence electrons?

Electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals determine the chemical properties of an element.

52

Define Hund's Rule.

Electrons with the same spin occupy each energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite electron spin can occur.

53

What are valence electrons?

Electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals determine the chemical properties of an element.

54

Define Hund's Rule.

Electrons with the same spin occupy each energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite electron spin can occur.

55

What are valence electrons?

Electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals determine the chemical properties of an element.

56

Define Hund's Rule.

Electrons with the same spin occupy each energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite electron spin can occur.

57

What are valence electrons?

Electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals determine the chemical properties of an element.

58

Define Hund's Rule.

Electrons with the same spin occupy each energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite electron spin can occur.

59

What are valence electrons?

Electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals determine the chemical properties of an element.

60

Define Hund's Rule.

Electrons with the same spin occupy each energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite electron spin can occur.

61

What are valence electrons?

Electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals determine the chemical properties of an element.

62

Define Hund's Rule.

Electrons with the same spin occupy each energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite electron spin can occur.

63

What are valence electrons?

Electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals determine the chemical properties of an element.

64

Define Hund's Rule.

Electrons with the same spin occupy each energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite electron spin can occur.

65

What are valence electrons?

Electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals determine the chemical properties of an element.

66

Define Hund's Rule.

Electrons with the same spin occupy each energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite electron spin can occur.

67

What are valence electrons?

Electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals determine the chemical properties of an element.