Chemistry Chapter 641 cards

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1

chemical bond

two or more nuclei attracted to the same electrons

2

ionic bonding

metal bonded to a nonmetal electronegativity difference greater than 1.7 electron attraction between positive and negative ions

3

covalent bonding

the sharing of valence electron pairs between two nonmetal atoms

4

Nonpolar-Covalent Bond

a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge electronegativity difference less than 0.4

5

Polar

bonds that have an uneven distribution of charge due to a difference in electronegativity

6

Polar-Covalent Bond

a covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons electronegativity difference between 0.4 and 1.7

7

Molecular compound

a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules

8

chemical formula

indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numeric subscripts

9

molecular formula

shows the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecular compound

10

diatomic molecule

a molecule containing only two atoms

11

bond length

the distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy, that is, the average distance between two bonded atoms

12

bond energy

the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms the measure of covalent bond strength

13

octet rule

chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in it's highest occupied energy level

14

Electron-Dot Notation

an electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element's symbol

15

lone pair

a pair of electrons that are not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom

16

Lewis Structure

formulas in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner-shell electrons, dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent electron pairs in covalent bonds, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent unshared electrons

17

structural formula

indicates the kind, number, arrangement, and bonds, but not the unshared pairs of an atom in a molecule

18

single bond

a covalent bond produced by the sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms

19

double bond

a covalent bond produced by the sharing of two pairs of electrons between two atoms

20

triple bond

a covalent bond produced by the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms

21

multiple bonds

double and triple bonds

22

resonance

when there is more than one correct way to write a dot structure

23

ionic compound

composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal

24

formula unit

the simplest ratio of the positive and negative ions in a compound

25

lattice energy

the measure of ionic bond strength always a negative number the bigger the negative number the stronger the bond is

26

polyatomic ion

a charged group of covalently bonded atoms

27

metallic bonding

the attraction between positive metal ions and the electrons they have donated to the empty valence orbitals

28

malleability

the ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into thin sheets

29

ductility

the ability of a substance to be drawn, pulled, or extruded through a small opening to produce a wire

30

molecular polarity

the uneven distribution of molecular charge

31

VSEPR Theory

states that repulsion between the sets of valence-level electrons surrounding an atom that causes these sets to be oriented as far apart as possible

32

hybridization

the mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energy

33

hybrid orbitals

orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom they sometimes occur in covalent bonding

34

intermolecular forces

the forces of attraction between molecules the more polar a molecule the stronger the intermolecular force

35

dipole

equal by opposite charges that are separated by a short distance polar covalent bonds have dipoles, nonpolar bonds have no dipoles

36

Dipole-Dipole Forces

the forces of attraction between polar molecules

37

hydrogen bonding

the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that in bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule hydrogen bonding is not a chemical, it is the strongest intermolecular force

38

London Dispersion Forces

the intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles the weakest intermolecular force

39

unit cell

the smallest 3-D portion of a crystal that shows the entire shape

40

Covalent bond length

the distance where the attractive and repulsive forces of the two bonded atoms are balanced that represents the maximum stability of those two atoms

41

Heat of Vaporization

the energy required to turn a solid metal into a gas the measure of metallic bond strength