Chemistry II Semester 2 Flashcards41 cards

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1

what is an outside energy level

elements in the same group sometime have the same outside energy level IE Li , Na and K have 1

2

Know a metal, non metal and alkaline metals

alkaline metals are Ca and MG group 2A silver in color Non metals have 4-8 electrons in outer shell Metals usually have 1- 3 The metal properties decrease as you move across the periodic table

3

ooking critically at the information given for each element, is Sodium (Na) more like Potassium (K) or Magnesium (Mg)? Explain why you chose your answer?

odium and Potassium are more like each other because they are both on the 1 column ( group ) and are alkali metals , and they both have single valance in that resides in the s orbital.

4

s Neon (Ne) more like Flourine (F) or Helium (He)?

I think Neon is more like Helium they are both in the 8A column ( group ) and they are both noble gases , and they are both colorless .

5

s Oxygen (O) more like Flourine (F) or Sulfur (S)

I think Oxygen is more like Flourine because they are both gases and sulfur is a nonmetal. And they both have a low /similar atomic mass and are in the same row ( period )

6

How did Rutherford experiment work

Rutherford’s experiment worked by the scientists shooting alpha particles into foil of gold and observed how some alpha particles got through and some bounce off at very large angle, some bounce back at them.

7

Give 2 examples of an isotope.

Carbon 12 and Carbon 14 are both isotopes of carbon, one with 6 neutrons and one with 8 neutrons (both with 6 protons). Uranium 234, 235, 238

8

What does it mean if a substance is radioactive?

A material is said to be radioactive if it emits radiation

9

What does half-life mean?

Time required for a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half

10

What is the difference between gamma, alpha, and beta radiation?

Alpha radiation is ionizing radiation resulting from the decay of radioisotopes where an alpha particle is emitted radiation of beta particles during radioactive decay

11

Define fission and fusion.

Fission is a nuclear effect where an enourmous nucleus divides into smaller nuclei. Concurrently there is a discharge of energy. Fusion is an opposite force in which nuclei unite to form a giant nucleus. There is also an immediate release of energy

12

What are the trends of the periodic table?

arrange by atomic mass , increase from left to right nobles gases are together

13

What is an isotope

Atoms with the same number of protons, but differing numbers of neutrons. Isotopes are different forms of a single element

14

distinguishing characteristics of the noble gas family

Nobel gases have an oxidation number of zero and therefore they don’t form compounds readily .They don’t gain or lose electrons because they already have a full valence shell. They are all in group 18 on the periodic table. They are colorless, odo

15

16

How did her organize the Periodic Table

By putting elements in increasing atomic mass


18

Atomic number is

The number of protons

19

Atomic Weight

The number of protons + the number of neutrons



22

How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does chlorine have

17 protons 18 neutrons and 17 electrons

23

Describe in one sentence why each element is different from each other.

Each element is different from each other by the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons

24

is Sodium (Na) more like Potassium (K) or Magnesium

Sodium and Potassium are more like each other because they are both on the 1 column ( group ) and are alkali metals , and they both have single valance in that resides in the s orbital.

25

Is Neon (Ne) more like Flourine (F) or Helium (He)?

I think Neon is more like Helium they are both in the 8A column ( group ) and they are both noble gases , and they are both colorless .


27

distinguishing characteristics of the alkali metal family

Alkali metals are very reactive that means they lose and gain electrons easily and form compounds easily such as NACL, KCL,. They can explode if added to water.

28

What is a alkali metal

very reactivate metals

29

What is a noble gas

Nobel gases have an oxidation number of zero and therefore they don't form compounds easily. They don't gain or lose electrons because they have a full valence shell. They are in group 18 and they are colorless, odorless and tasteless and nonflam

30

and how Rutherford’s experiment relates to the "Mimicking with Marbles" activity.

by sometimes the marbles would come right back at my volunteers and sometimes they would bounce off in angles like the alpha particles in the Rutherford’s experiment and most of marbles would go straight through the pie pan especially on the small

31

What is the difference between direct and indirect evidence?

Direct evidence is when the evidence is collected in person for example, taking a measurement of the object is direct evidence. Indirect evidence is when use the information we have and think that it will work on the problem or idea we hav

32

hy do we need to use indirect evidence when measuring atoms (or for that matter measuring the temperature of the sun, or the distance across the Milky Way Galaxy).

Everything we know about atoms is almost indirect evidence since we can’t see atoms because they are too small. We know some things about atoms’ properties. Same with the temperature of the sun, or distance across the Milky way, we haven’t or can’t

33

Give an example of radio

boom box , TV , Cell phones

34

Microwaves

shorter than radio - Cook our food, and dopler weather

35

Why was Rutherford experiment important

e hypothesized that the mass in the atom was in the nucleus which is a very small part of the atom and in the center which is made up of a positive charge and the rest of the atom is made of the empty space. The negative charges of atom are not in


37

Infrared Waves

Lies between the visible and microwave portions. form of hear, sidewalk heat and our skin

38

Visable

See - Red longest, and Violet is the shortes

39

UV

shorter wavelength than visible - some insects can see , - cause skin to burn used in some surgeries

40

X-rays

smaller by high energy - see bones

41

Gamma -rays

smallest , highest energy - radiation therapy , kills cancer cells