Chemistry II part 2 51 cards

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1

What pattern do you notice from questions 1-3 with respect to rows and columns

They are organized by atomic mass. Atomic mass increases left to right and also in columns ie

2

distinguishing characteristics of the alkali metal family.

Alkali metals are very reactive that means they lose and gain electrons easily and form compounds easily such as NACL, KCL,. They can explode if added to water.

3

List distinguishing characteristics of the noble gas family

Nobel gases have an oxidation number of zero and therefore they don’t form compounds readily .They don’t gain or lose electrons because they already have a full valence shell. group 18 on the periodic table. They are colorless,

4

outside energy level electrons for the first 20 or 30 elements

patterns? ANSWER: Yes elements in the same group have the same outside energy level ie Li, Na, K, have 1 and Mg and Ca have 2 . F has 7 , CL has 7 N has 5 MN 2 . This pattern didn’t work as well for the yellow or middle elements.

5

Do you see patterns in relations to metals, and nonmetals?

Metals usually have 1-3 electrons in their outer shell, nonmetals have 4-8. They are more metals then non metals, the metal properties decrease as you move across the periodic table.

6

outside energy level electrons for the first 20 or 30 elements

patterns? ANSWER: Yes elements in the same group have the same outside energy level ie Li, Na, K, have 1 and Mg and Ca have 2 . F has 7 , CL has 7 N has 5 MN 2 . This pattern didn’t work as well for the yellow or middle elements.

7

Do you see patterns in relations to metals, and nonmetals?

Metals usually have 1-3 electrons in their outer shell, nonmetals have 4-8. They are more metals then non metals, the metal properties decrease as you move across the periodic table.

8

What are the colors, in order, of the visible part of the spectrum

n order from greatest to least the colors of the visible part of the spectrum are: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet.

9

Give 5 examples of where we see (or use) different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.

1) Microwaves ovens to cook 2) X-rays at the doctors 3) Radios waves to listen to music and cell phones to text and talk to your friends, and old fashioned TV antennas. 4) Gamma rays – kills cancer cells 5) The weatherman reports the UV in

10

Define Frequency and wavelength.

frequency is the numbers of events in a given amount of time. Frequency is usually measured in cycles per second. Wavelength is the measurement between to consecutive troughs or peaks; usually it’s the distance between two peak waves. Wavelengt

11

. How are frequency and wavelength related to each other. (include: What happens to frequency if wavelength gets longer? What happens to wavelength if frequency gets higher?)

The wavelength gets longer the wavelength the frequency decreases and the opposite (inverse) is true so when the wavelength decreases the frequency increases.

12

3. How are frequency and wavelength related to energy

avelength is related to energy because as the wavelengths become smaller, there is a higher frequency and the energy increases. Shorter wavelength = higher energy Longest wavelength = lowest energy. The higher the frequency, the higher the energy. E


14

Radio waves have the lowest frequency

Which waves of the electromagnetic spectrum have the lowest frequency?




18

Of the visible spectrum which color has the least energy?

The red color has the least energy of the visible color spectrum


20

10. Of the visible which color has the highest energy

Violet has the highest energy of the visible colors.

21

this science is called spectroscopy

Spectral lines are the unique set of colors that each type of atom has, you can tell which element an unknown element by reading the lines

22

What is Bohr's model

Bohr’s model was that energy could only change in little jumps this is called quantum and this why this type of science is called Quantum Mechanics.

23

Whenever a proton is emitted it show

t shows up on the spectrum according to its wavelength .

24

True or false

A given element always has the same number of protons but the electrons can be different.

25

Flame test

can be used to identify elements that are unknown. Elements have traits of colors that you can see when burned. The heat of the flame causes the electrons in the element to become excited and display a visible light to the human eye.

26

Flame tests related to the Bohr theory because

he stated that electrons only have specific energy levels and that electrons could jump to up to energy level the exact amount of energy they absorbed through a photon of light. The heat from the Bunsen burners provides the heat energy needed to cau

27

. What makes an atom radioactive?

An atom is made radioactive by becoming unstable in the nucleous of the atom. They do this by losing a neutron and this gives off energy.

28

1. During beta decay what does the beta particle consist of?

. During beta decay the beta particle is emitted it can be negative charged electrons ( beta negative ) or positive charged prositron ( beta plus)

29

What are alpha particles?

Alpha particles are two neutrons and two protons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus. They are positively charged and emmited during nuclear decay such as uranium break down

30

What happens in gamma decay

Gamma decay happens because the nucleus is at too elevated of an energy level .The nucleus falls down to a lesser energy state and, in the course of action , emits a high energy photon which is called as a gamma particle

31

A helium nucleus is emitte

Answer- alpha radiation



34

Compare the mass, energy, and penetrating power of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation

Alpha: highest mass , high energy levels (4-8 MeV ), low penetrating power Beta: lighter mass than alpha, medium energy, hgher penetrating power than Alpha ( medium penetrating power Gamma: no mass, highest energy level, highest penetrating pow

35

Compare the mass, energy, and penetrating power of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation

Alpha: highest mass , high energy levels (4-8 MeV ), low penetrating power Beta: lighter mass than alpha, medium energy, hgher penetrating power than Alpha ( medium penetrating power Gamma: no mass, highest energy level, highest penetrating pow

36

A bad guy has captured

Alpha radiation because they do not penetrate the body’s outer layer of skin they have have little risk for us outside the body.

37

Which type would be the worst one to choose and why?

Gamma radiation because of its high penetrating power and would penetrate though thick barriers.

38

Why do you wear the ever-stylish lead apron in the dentist’s office?

Radiation can’ t penetrate through lead and this lead apron protectsyou from stray radiation

39

Define radiation

Radiation is supply of energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles.



42

14. Which organs in the human body are more sensitive to radiation.

Reproductive organs because reproductive tract cells divide rapidly, these areas of the body can be damaged at low levels.

43

List the sources and amounts of radiation.

Cosmic radiation at sea level 26, elevation 4,000-5000 21, Food and water 40, From air ( radon 200 , jet travel 10, luggage X-ray .002, Weapon test fallout 1, stone house, 7, TV 1, computer terminal 1, Smoke detector yes, X-rays medical 40 .

44

How much radiation can a person tolerate before it makes them sick, or worse:

Doses of greater 100 mrem damages the intestinal lining in the GI tract and causes nausea diarrhea, and general weakness . For whole doses greater 300 mrem a person’s immune system is damage and they can’t fight off infections or diseases normally.

45

What are 2 examples of radiation being a good thing for humans.

1. To treat cancer 2. To diagnosis illness ( such a broken bones and cancer)

46

What are 2 examples of radiation being a negative thing for humans

Too much radiation exposure has been linked to cancer (cells, changes) Too much radiation ruins immune system so you can’t fight off the diseases or infections. And can kill people in war

47

Fission

Fission is the process where a heavy nucleus splits into two smaller, more stable, nuclei.

48

Nuclear power plants are fission reactors

They use the incredibly large amounts of energy produced as atoms split to generate electricity.

49

Bad about fission

and causes cancer to people, if not properly taken care of. The nuclear waste has to be put into concrete buildings for many years to get the radioactivlely level down so they can put it deep underground with glass and other waste. When it is underg

50

Good about fission

nuclear power has few good things about it, it has a suffientially less cost and a lot more efficient than typical coal-burning power. Nuclear plants can produce a great deal of energy.

51

Good about fission

nuclear power has few good things about it, it has a suffientially less cost and a lot more efficient than typical coal-burning power. Nuclear plants can produce a great deal of energy.