ENGLISH EXAM34 cards

Tagged as: english, language, economics, criminal justic, sports, nursing, chemistry, algebra, math

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Rhetoric Definition

The production of spoken and written text.

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Comma rules 1-3

1. connect two independent clauses along with a coordinating conjunction. Ex) Bob vomited, so Rob laughed. 2. to offset most introductory elements. Ex) Suddenly, john tattooed his uvula. 3. to separate items in a series. Ex) For dinner i had beets, franks, red peppers, and oatmeal.

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Comma rules 4-6

4. To separate equal adjectives Ex) Bobs live was dull, solitary, dirty, nasty and short. 5. To offset a direct address Ex) Honey, im in jail Im in jail, honey. 6. To offset quotes Ex) then she said,"we are totally not buying that iPhone."

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Comma rules 7-9

7. To offset degrees, titles, ect Ex) Sara Palin, DDS, extracted three of his teeth. 8. To offset parenthetical "aside" expressions Ex) That guy was,like, hauntingly normal. I saw bob, that bastard, at the supermarket. 9. To offset tag sentences Ex)She loves food, you know.

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Semi-Colons rules ;

1. To connect two CLOSELY RELATED independent clauses. Ex) Yesterday i had spaghetti; today ill have sushi. 2. To separate items in a series where there are internal commas. Ex) Guests at my party included Bob and Ekaternia, the lopezs; kwame and lise, the blooms; the kid show takes out the garbage; host and roma, the

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Colon rules :

1. List Ex) Please buy these things: food, beer, candy, and paper. 2.Quoted material Ex) The nominee announced his running mate: "Pikachu, i choose you." 3. Apoositive - Something that renames something Ex) Her heart was set on one thing: a walrus-polishing kit.

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Prepositional Phrase

Prepositions are the words that indicate location. Usually, prepositions show this location in the physical world. Ex) At mid-night, i snuck out of my house. A prepositional phrase will begin with a preposition and end with a noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause, the "object" of the preposition. Ex)From my grandma

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Gerund Phrase

Ing-verb used as a noun Ex) Sneezing in soup is rude.

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Infinitive Phrase

An infinitive phrase will begin with an infinitive [to + simple form of the verb]. It will include objects and/or modifiers Ex) To smash a spider

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Dependent Clause

Can't stand on its own. Adverb dependent clause - When spring arrives Adjective dependent clause - that i gave him where i was born

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Independent Clause

An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause is a sentence. Ex)Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz.

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Relative Pronouns

Who Whom Whose Which That

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Syllogisms (part of deductive reasoning)

Major Premise - an assertion about a whole class; "All" statements. Ex) All cats can put Minor Premise - an assertion about inclusion in that class Ex) Boris is a cat Conclusion - logical result of combining major and minor premise. Ex) Therefore, Boris can pur

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Active Voice

The subject takes the action. Ex) I made a mistake

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Passive Voice

The subject does not take the action, it is acted apron. Ex) A mistake was made

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Inductive Reasoning

Brownies are good, so all of the individual ingredients are good.

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Text

a piece of writing or speaking. Ex) Novel, commercial, or lecture.

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Subtext

the underlying meaning of a text.

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Context

the surrounding situation of a text, the "big picture" about the meaning.

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Logos

logic and reason in literacy

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Ethos

Credibility in the writers authority New york times best seller!

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Pathos

Writers use emotion, vivid images and startling language to persuade readers.

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Toulmin model

a way of analyzing argument. Claim, support, and warrant. (Argument basics)

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Logical Fallacy - Concurrecny

A occurs with B. Therefore, A causes B (Time)

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Logical Fallacy - Post Hoc

A precedes B. Therefore, A causes B (Time)

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Logical Fallacy - Composition

A has quality 1. B has quality 1. Therefore, A+B have quality 1 (Whole&parts)

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Logical Fallacy - Division

Qualities of the whole are qualities of individual elements. Brownies are good, so all the individual ingredients by themselves are good.. (Whole&parts)

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Logical Fallacy - Faulty Analogy

A is like B in quality C. Therefore, A is like B in quality D

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Logical Fallacy - Non-sequitur

"Does not follow" Ex) The temperature has dropped into the 30's, so give me all of your money.

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Argument Basics - Claim

Claim (thesis) of fact - an assertion about what is or not Claim of value - about goodness or badness (-,+) Claim of policy - what should or should not be.

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Argument Basics - Support

Two categories of support 1.Appeal to needs and values 2. Evidence type

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Argument Basics - Warrant

Usually unstated underlying assumption that connects claim and support.

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Descriptive Writing

The essence of descriptive writing is sensory detail. 5 senses Vision, smell, touch, hearing, and taste