FON Test 162 cards

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Historical development of professional nursing

-war accentuated need for nurses -Florence Nightingale & Crimean war -societal attitudes changed -rise of professional organizations -leading figures -nursing schools -professional standards & scopes est -nursing practice acts -codes of ethics est -body ok knowledge


NURSING: definitions, philosophies & theories

-def of nursing has changed -there are many dif types of recipients of nursing care -the scope of nursing is more clearly defined -there are many dif settings for practice -there are nurse practice acts -there are current standards of practice


Different educational programs for becoming a R.N.

-Diploma Programs: -Hospital based educational programs -clinical experiences -Associate Degree Programs: -community colleges -cadet nurse corps -idea of Mildred Montag -AND, Columbia University -Baccalaureate Degree Programs: -4 yrs -gen ed as well -some fast-track -BS


Continuing education activities & the importance of lifelong professional growth

-enhance skills -responsibility of all practicing nurses -keep up w/ changes in health care -keep up w/ new technologies & new knowledge -can obtain expertise in a specialized area of practice -need credits to renew license -in-service programs -certificate of completion for specialization


Evidence based practice

-informs clinical decision making bases on the simultaneous use of the best evidence, clinical expertise & client values -synthesis of latest research allows for best care -nurses must design & implement practice change based on evidence


Role of research in nursing

-entails using formal & systematic processes to address problems & answer questions -research findings guide clients care -problems come up in nursing practice that can then be systematically researched -Nurses: --must routinely search current research --can be a research team member --can help advocate for research pa


Purpose of hospital based staff development programs

-continuing education -enhance knowledge & skills of practicing professionals -keep abreast of scientific & technological changes -changes w/in health care industries -changes w/in the profession -new techniques -attain specialized expertise -continuing competence -new equipment -new methods of implementation -new docu


Different practice settings of an RN

-primary prevention setting -public health -physicians office -ambulatory care center -occupational health clinics -community health nursing -hospitals -sub-acute care facilities -long-term care facilities -retirement/assisted care living -rehab centers -home health care agencies -day care centers -rural care -hospice


How does the nurse demonstrate leadership by being politically active in healthcare issues

-change agent -sets boundaries of the profession -advances nursing profession -improves working conditions -improve nursing programs -lobby for legislation affecting health care -ANA-PAC -can hold positions of authority in government & advance health care issues -ICN-worldwide, influences health policy


Legal/ethical issues in conjunction w/ various settings & roles for a RN

-nurses as a witness -nurse practice acts-scope -credentialing/licensing/certification -follow standards of care -has liability/contractual obligations -collective bargaining -must obtain informed consent -provide linguistically & culturally appropriate services -mandated reporter -supervise delegated tasks -must not b


Basic roles of various health team members

-Nurse- education & certification -Alternative care provider- non-western medicine -Case Manager- to ensure client receives fiscally sound, appropriate care -Dentist -Dietitian/Nutritionist- diets to maintain health. Supervise preparation of meals -Emergency medical personnel- 1st responders -OT- assists clients w/ imp



the degree of wellness or well-being that the client experiences



A highly personal state in which the person feels unhealthy or ill, may or may not be related to disease


Effect cultural differences may have on the health-illness continuum

-family structure -economics -science & technology -rural vs urban -elderly -ethnography-cultural patterns of thought -personal space -gender relations -religious beliefs -language barriers -body language -child rearing practices -beliefs about nutrition -beliefs about death -conflicts b/t nurses & clients values -way


Variables that influence health beliefs & practices

EXTERNAL (p.306) -Physical environment -Standards of living -Family & cultural beliefs -Social support networks INTERNAL (p.303) -biology -psychology -cognitive


Social forces affecting the practice of nursing

Scopes & standards Ethics Legal issues Aging populations New definition of family Urbanization Educated clients Economic factors DRGs Rising health care costs Less inpatient, more outpatient care Consumer demands Healthcare seen as a right Consumer no active participant Science & technology Telecommunications Demograph


3 Levels of health care services

-Primary prevention -Secondary prevention -Tertiary prevention


What is primary prevention

-1st level of health care services -health promotion & illness prevention -illness prevention programs directed at client community


What is secondary prevention?

-2nd level of health care services -diagnosis & treatement -hospitals & drs offices -early detection of disease -screening


What is tertiary prevention?

-3rd level of health care services -rehabilitation, health restoration & palliative care -helps people to move to their previous level of health or end-of-life care


Impact of an illness on the client & family

-coping skills -teaching needed -economic strains -loss of autonomy -strained family relationships -end-of-life issues -need to advocate for clients -who makes decisions? -assess impacts of nursing decisions on clients & family -veracity


5 Steps of the Nursing Process

1)Assessing 2)Diagnosing 3)Planning 4)Implementing/Evaluating 5)Documenting & recoding


What is ASSESSING in the nursing process?

-step 1 -identify clients health status -actual & potential needs -establish baseline -collecting & organizing data -active participation by client * ACCEPTABLE CRITERIA: -est a database about the clients response to health concerns or illness & the ability to manage health care needs


What is Diagnosing in the nursing process?

-Step 2 -analyze data -identify health problems, risks & strengths -formulate a nursing diagnosis -NANDA -diagnosis, problem & etiology -defining characteristics -ACCEPTABLE CRITERIA: identify clients strengths & health problems that can be prevented or resolved by collaborative & independent nursing interventions


What is PLANNING in the nursing process

-step 3 -designing nursing activities required to prevent, reduce or eliminate a clients health problems -involves a team -set diagnosis priorities -NOC taxonomy -client goals are desired outcomes derived from 1st clause of the nursing diagnosis -interventions are focused on the etiology & NIC taxonomy has -ACCEPTABLE


What is Implementing/Evaluating in the nursing process?

-4th step -putting planned nursing interventions into action -continual reassessment -evaluation of effectiveness of nursing actions -quality insurance & quality improvement -ACCEPTABLE CRITERIA: assist the client to meet desired goals/outcomes; promotes wellness, prevent illness & disease, restore health & facilitate


What is Documenting/recoding in the nursing process?

-the 5th step -legal document -confidentiality -ACCEPTABLE CRITERIA: determine whether to continue, modify or terminate the plan of care


What is Objective Data?

-signs -detectable by an observer -seen, felt, smelled, heard -observation of physical examination -seen on examination -lab tests -can validate subjective data


What is subjective data?

-symptoms -apparently only to person affected -can only be described by that person -includes sensations, beliefs, feelings & values


What is the purpose of the nursing assessment?

-collect data -assist in planning & diagnosing -looks for signs & symptoms -conduct initial interview -est a baseline -observe client -examine client


Sources of data for a nursing assessment

1)client 2)support people 3)client records 4)health care professionals 5)literature


Methods of data collection

1)observing- a conscious, deliberate skill involving use of the senses. 2)interviewing- directive & nondirective questioning to obtain the nursing health history 3)examining 4)nursing health history


basic human needs according to Maslow

1) physiological needs 2) safety & security 3) love & belonging 4) self-esteem 5)self-actualization


Components of Maslows hierarchy of needs

1) physiological needs- airway, food temp, rest, elimination, pain avoidance. (Crucial for survival) 2) safety & security- both physical & psychological. (Protection) 3) love & belonging- giving & receiving of affection, attaining a place in a group, maintaining a feeling of belonging. (Love belonging looseness) 4) sel


Maslows hierarchy of needs in the development of a plan of nursing care

It assists when setting priorities. Human needs are ranked on an ascending scale according to how essential the needs are for survival.


Critical thinking activities required for ASSESSING (step 1) in the nursing process

-Making reliable observations -Distinguishing relevant from irrelevant data -Distinguishing important from unimportant data -Validating data -Organizing data -Categorizing data according to a framework -Recognizing assumptions -Identifying gaps in the data


Critical thinking activities required for DIAGNOSING (step 2) in the nursing process

-Finding patterns & relationships among cues -Making inferences -Suspending judgment when lacking data -Stating the problem -Examining assumptions -Comparing patterns w/ norms -Identifying factors contributing to the problem


Critical thinking activities required for PLANNING (step 3) in the nursing process

-Forming valid generalizations -Transferring knowledge from 1 situation to another -Developing evaluative criteria -Hypothesizing -Making interdisciplinary connections -Prioritizing clients problems -Generalizing principles from other sciences


Critical thinking activities required for IMPLEMENTING (step 4) in the nursing process

-Applying knowledge to perform interventions -Testing hypothesis


Critical thinking activities required for EVALUATING (step 5) in the nursing process

-Deciding whether hypotheses is correct -Making criterion-based evaluations



(north american nursing diagnosis association) use the concept of nursing diagnosis effectively in generating & completing a nursing care plan, must be familiar w/ the def & terms used & the components of nursing diagnosis



(nursing interventions classifications) taxonomy of nursing interventions



(nursing outcomes classifications) taxonomy for describing client outcomes that respond to nursing interventions


functional health patterns

-health perception-heath management pattern -nutritional-metabolic pattern -elimination pattern -activity-exercise pattern -sleep pattern -cognitive-perceptual pattern -self-perception/self-concept pattern -role-relationship pattern -sexuality-reproductive pattern -coping-stress tolerance pattern -value-belief pattern


health perception-health management pattern

-functional health pattern -clients perceived pattern of health & well-being & how health is managed


nutritional-metabolic pattern

-functional health pattern -clients pattern of food & fluid consumption relative to metabolic need & pattern indicators of local nutrient supply


elimination pattern

-functional health pattern -patterns of excretory function (bowel, bladder, skin)


activity-exercise pattern

-functional health pattern -pattern of exercise, activity, leisure & recreation


sleep pattern

-functional health pattern -patterns of sleep & relaxation


cognitive-perceptual pattern

-functional health pattern -sensory-perceptual & cognitive patterns


self-perception/self-concept pattern

-functional health pattern -clients self-concept pattern & perceptions of self (self-conception/worth, comfort, body image, feeling state)


role-relationship pattern

-functional health pattern -clients pattern of role participation & relationships


sexuality-reproductive pattern

-functional health pattern -clients patterns of satisfaction & dissatisfaction w/ sexuality pattern/reproduction patterns


coping-stress pattern

-functional health pattern -clients general coping pattern & the effectiveness of the pattern in terms of stress tolerence


value-belief pattern

-functional health pattern -patterns of values, beliefs (including spiritual) & goals that guide the clients choices/decisions


what is case management & critical pathways in a clients health care plan

identify outcomes that certain groups of clients are expected to achieve on each day of care


what is communication

any means of exchanging info or feelings b/t 2 or more people


what is verbal communication

-conscious varies by socioeconomic, culture & education -need clarity, brevity, timing, relevance, credibility, humor, pace, intonation, adaptability


what is non-verbal communication

-body language, be aware of disconnects b/t verbal & non-verbal communication


what is personal space?

the distance people prefer in interactions w/ others


factors that influence the communication process

-developement -gender -values & perceptions -personal space -territoriality -roles & relationships -enviornment -congruence -interpersonal attitudes (respect, caring, warmth) -boundaries (limits in which a person may act or refrain from acting w/in a designated time or place)


characteristics of therapeutic communication

THERAPUTIC COMMINUCATION - promotes understanding & help est. a constructive relationship b/t nurse & client -respond to content of clients message/feelings/expressions ATTENTIVE LISTENING - -use all senses, highly developed skill -pay attention to all cues, listening for key themes -focus on clients needs, ask questi