GOL106-a27 cards

Tagged as: earth, geology, history, computer science, nursing, astronomy, geography

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I THE SCIENCE OF GEOLOGY A. EARTH AS A SYSTEM – __________________

a combination of related parts that interact in an organized fashion

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I THE SCIENCE OF GEOLOGY PRINCIPLE SUBSYSTEMS - ___________________

Earth-Universe System, Hydrosphere, Atmosphere, Biosphere, Solid Earth

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I THE SCIENCE OF GEOLOGY B. GEOLOGY- STUDY OF __________________

materials-rocks, lava; processes-volcanism, glaciation .. products-sand, gravel, water, ores, .. history-when, what, where, how, why OF EARTH.

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I THE SCIENCE OF GEOLOGY Examples of professions: ____________________

geophysicists, engineers, paleontologists, hydrologists, glaciologists, petrologists


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II EARLY GEOLOGY A. CATASTROPHISM-________________

A. CATASTROPHISM-Archbishop Ussher

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II EARLY GEOLOGY A. CATASTROPHISM-Archbishop Ussher - Doctrine that a series of _______ & _________ worldwide events are responsible for state of ______________ and variety of ________ that live on it.

Doctrine that a series of Short-Lived & Catastrophism worldwide events are responsible for state of The Earth’s Surface and variety of Life Forms that live on it.

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II EARLY GEOLOGY CATASTROPHISM EXAMPLE: ____________

Example: Volcanic Eruption at Pompei 79 A.D.

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II EARLY GEOLOGY B. UNIFORMITARIANISM-______________

B. UNIFORMITARIANISM-JAMES HUTTON

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II EARLY GEOLOGY B. JAMES HUTTON- UNIFORMITARIANISM- Principle that past____________ can be explained by __________ events occurring _______. “Present is key to the _____.” Application of this to study of earth is called ACTUALISM

B. JAMES HUTTON- UNIFORMITARIANISM- Principle that past geologic processes can be explained by geologic events occurring today. “Present is key to the past.” Application of this to study of earth is called ACTUALISM

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II EARLY GEOLOGY Example of ACTUALISM: ______________

Ocean waves breaking up rock cliffs creates sediment “Present is key to past”.

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ROCK CYCLE- ties in with both ________ and ___________.

ROCK CYCLE- ties in with both Uniformitarianism and Catastrophism.

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ROCK CYCLE M____, c______, i_______ rock, w__________, e________, t__________, d__________, s______________, l____________ (compaction, c____________, c____________) sedimentary rock, burial M___________ (heat and pressure) metamorphic rock, further

Magma, crystallization, igneous rock, weathering, erosion, transportation, deposition, sediment, lithification (compaction, cementation, ccrystallization) sedimentary rock, burial Metamorphism (heat and pressure) metamorphic rock, further burial, mel

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D. HYDROLOGIC CYCLE - ESSENTIAL TO ROCK CYCLE Continuous circulation pattern of world’s water, from ocean to ______ to land surface to ______ again.

D. HYDROLOGIC CYCLE - ESSENTIAL TO ROCK CYCLE Continuous circulation pattern of world’s water, from ocean to atmosphere to land surface to ocean again.

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Hydrologic cycle is mainly powered by ____ energy. and to some extent ________ energy.

Hydrologic cycle is mainly powered by solar energy. and to some extent gravitational energy.

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The effect of this Hydrologic cycle is to redistribute _______ (____, ___, _____) over earth’s surface. This creates regions of geologic stability & instability and leads to __________, _________ __________, etc…“evaporation- condensation-precipitat

The effect of this cycle is to redistribute MATTER (rock, ice, water) over earth’s surface. This creates regions of geologic stability & instability and leads to earthquakes, mountain building, etc…“evaporation- condensation-precipitation-evaporatio

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III) MINERALS COMBINE TO MAKE ROCKS A. MINERAL- DEFINITION: ___________________

III) MINERALS COMBINE TO MAKE ROCKS A. MINERAL- DEFINITION: “Naturally occurring inorganic, crystalline (solid) with a definite range in chemical composition”

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B. ROCK- DEFINITION: ________________

B. ROCK- DEFINITION: An aggregated of one or more mineral and an appreciable chuck of earth.

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BODY OF ROCK FORMED IN A PARTICULAR WAY CLASSIFIED AS A __________

BODY OF ROCK FORMED IN A PARTICULAR WAY CLASSIFIED AS A FORMATION

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Rock Examples _____________

Examples: CALAVARAS –SHOOFLY FORMATION-CALIFORNIA; WISSAHICKON SCHIST- PA, MD;

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IV GEOLOGIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS A. ROCK _____ (layers) AND PRINCIPLES TO DETERMINE THEIR RELATIVE AGE

A. ROCK STRATA (layers) AND PRINCIPLES TO DETERMINE THEIR RELATIVE AGE

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1) _____________ - age expressed relative to age of other objects or events; no time units. Examples: One rock is older than another. She is older then he is.

1) RELATIVE AGE - age expressed relative to age of other objects or events; no time units. Examples: One rock is older than another. She is older then he is.

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o SUPERPOSITION –______ rock layer is on ___, oldest on _____.

o SUPERPOSITION –youngest rock layer is on top, oldest on bottom.

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o ORIGINAL HORIZONTALITY- ___ ______ are originally deposited ________ so folded strata suggest that _____________________.

o ORIGINAL HORIZONTALITY- rock layers are originally deposited horizontally so folded strata suggest that a folding event also took place.

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o CROSS CUTTING RELATIONS- cross cutting feature is ________ than that which it cuts.

o CROSS CUTTING RELATIONS- cross cutting feature is younger than that which it cuts.

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o FOSSIL- remain or ____ or imprint of plant or animal preserved in ______.

o FOSSIL- remain or trace or imprint of plant or animal preserved in rock.

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3) STRATIGRAPHY- STUDY OF __________

3) STRATIGRAPHY- STUDY OF layered rocks, especially their geometric relations, compositions, origins and age relations.