Great Depression51 cards

Tagged as: psychology, business, economics, history, government, finance, accounting, act, physics, fitness, religion, geography

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1

gross national product

total value of goods and services produced in a nation during a specific period

2

Herbert Hoover

Republican candidate who easily won the presidential election of 1928

3

buying on margin

buying stocks with loans from stockbrokers

4

Federal Reserve System

serves as the nation’s central bank; sets policies to regulate the nation’s money supply

5

Black Tuesday

the stock market collapse on October 29, 1929

6

hobo

jobless, homeless wanderer during the Great Depression

7

Great Depression

the most severe economic downturn in the history of the United States

8

asset

financial holdings or resources

9

foreclosure

occurs when a lender takes over ownership of property from an owner who has failed to make loan payments

10

Hoovervilles

sprawling neighborhoods of shacks named for President Hoover, whom many blamed for the Great Depression

11

Dust Bowl

parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas that were hardest hit by years of dust storms

12

Woody Guthrie

singer-songwriter whose songs about the Dust Bowl describe the disaster’s effect on the people it touched

13

associative state

President Hoover’s term for his vision of voluntary partnership between business associations and government

14

cooperative

an organization owned and controlled by its members who work together for a common goal

15

Reconstruction Finance Cooperation

federal agency that loaned money to banks and other struggling institutions during the Great Depression

16

Smoot- Hawley Tariff Act

new tax that raised the cost of imported goods for Americans, making them more likely to buy cheaper American goods

17

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Democratic presidential nominee who defeated Hoover in the election of 1932

18

public works

government-funded building projects

19

fireside chat

radio address by President Roosevelt meant to sound as if he were in the listener’s living room

20

Eleanor Roosevelt

wife of Franklin Roosevelt and a powerful political force in her own right

21

Hundred Days

critical period of government activity when President Roosevelt pushed Congress to put in place key parts of his program

22

New Deal

Roosevelt’s wide range of measures to provide recovery from the Great Depression

23

subsidy

government payment

24

Huey P. Long

Senator of Louisiana who believed Roosevelt’s policies were too friendly to banks and businesses

25

Father Charles Coughlin

Catholic priest who turned against President Roosevelt for not doing enough to curb the power of banks and businesses

26

Dr. Francis Townsend

critic of the New Deal whose ideas helped shape Roosevelt’s later policies

27

Second New Deal

legislation that funded additional relief programs during the Great Depression

28

Social Security

government system which provides a pension for many people 65 and older

29

John L. Lewis

fiery speaker and organizer of the CIO

30

CIO

group that broke away from the AFL to form a new union of unskilled workers

31

sit-down strike

new kind of strike that required strikers to remain at the factory day and night until the dispute was settled

32

deficit

occurs when a government spends more money than it takes in through taxes and other income

33

John Maynard Keynes

British economist who believed that deficit spending could provide jobs and stimulate the economy

34

Frances Perkins

Secretary of Labor and first woman to head an executive department in the federal government

35

Black Cabinet

group of African Americans who acted as unofficial advisors to President Roosevelt

36

Mary McLeod Bethune

director of Negro Affairs in the National Youth Administration and leader of the Black Cabinet

37

Dorothea Lange

photographer whose work chronicled the Great Depression

38

swing

new, highly orchestrated type of jazz featuring larger groups of musicians known as big bands

39

Marian Anderson

internationally famous African American singer who suffered discrimination in the United States

40

incumbent

person presently in a political office

41

TVA

Tennessee Valley Authority: created to generate electric power and control floods in a seven-U.S.-state region around the Tennessee River Valley

42

CCC

Civilian Conservation Corps: interdepartmental work and relief program that sent young, unemployed men from the cities to work on conservation projects in rural areas at a dollar a day

43

FDIC

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: guarantees checking and savings deposits in member banks

44

NRA

National Recovery Administration: gave more rights to workers and employees, and assisted industries as well as poor unemployed people of the early 1930s. The NRA established minimum wages and maximum labor hours

45

SEC

Securities and Exchange Commission: has primary responsibility for overseeing the regulation of the securities industry

46

Rugged Individualism

could take care of yourself

47

Emergency Bank Relief Act

this act allowed a plan that would close down insolvent banks and reorganize and reopen those banks strong enough to survive

48

Glass Steagall Act

established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) in the United States and introduced banking reforms

49

Trickle Down Economics

that to benefit the wealthy is to benefit the middle classes and even the poor. the wealthy buy things from the middle class and they both benifit and so on

50

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

agency gave $2 billion in aid to state and local governments and made loans to banks, railroads, farm mortgage associations, and other businesses

51

Fair Labor Standards Act

established a national minimum wage, guaranteed time and a half for overtime, and prohibited most employment of minors