HSES 330 Ch 16-1925 cards

Tagged as: biology, fitness, biochemistry, medicine, geology, medical, nursing, immunology, pathology, pharmacology, psychology

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1

How many (if any) extra calories are required during the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy?

 Balanced and adequate diet during the first trimester, no extra calories required  trimester = 3 months  ~350-450 extra kcals per day during both the 2nd and 3rd trimesters

2

What is the appropriate pace of weight gain during the first, second and third trimesters?

 2 - 4 lb. of weight gain during the 1st trimester (average of 1 lb/month)  0.75 - 1 lb. weight gain per week during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters  Total weight gain goal is ~25-35 lb. for normal weight women  Underweight women should gain 28 - 40 lb.  Obese women should gain 15 - 25 lb.

3

How many extra grams of protein are required during pregnancy?

 Protein: daily needs increase  1.1 g protein/kg body weight (RDA is 0.8)  Equals additional 25 grams/day on average  Many (non-pregnant) women already consume the recommended amount for protein


5

Name the seven health concerns during pregnancy.

Constipation, Hemorrhoids, Heartburn, Edema, "Morning" Sickness, Anemia, Gestational diabetes, Pregnancy-induced high blood pressure (2types)

6

How many extra calories per day are required when breastfeeding?

 Calories: milk production requires roughly 500 extra calories/day above pre-pregnancy

7

For infants, what supplies all of the nutrient needs for the first 6 months of life? At what point are solid foods introduced?

 First 6 months; human milk or formula only source of nutrition  Second 6 months; supplemented with solid food



10

What’s the difference between a food allergy and food intolerance?

 Allergy - Most common during infant stage due to immature digestive tracts allowing incompletely digested proteins to be absorbed. True food allergies occur when a food triggers an immune system mediated reaction. This reaction involves the antibody IgE (immunoglobulin E), which causes certain immune system cells to release histamine, leading to

11

What are the general eating behaviors of toddlers (ages 1-5)?

 Eating pattern becomes very inconsistent, especially appetite in general  Appetite varies with activity level and general health  Picky eating is an indication of strive for independence  Likes and dislikes change rapidly

12

What’s the best indicator to whether a child is getting adequate nutrition? What is the goal for growth pattern?

 Best indicator is growth pattern of child using growth charts  Comparison to a standard growth pattern  Many charts exist  Weight for age  Length for age  Head circumference for age  BMI for age (especially when past infancy)  Goal is consistent growth pattern, not necessarily being the perfect weight or height for age


14

For toddlers and preschoolers what are the 4 health concerns?

 Dental Caries  Food allergies  Constipation  Hyperactivity and ADHD  Caffeine is a possible cause  Lead toxicity


16

Name the reasons breakfast may be beneficial for school age children.

 Improving academic performance  Improving attendance  Decreasing emotional and behavioral problems  Children who eat breakfast more likely to meet their vitamin and mineral needs,  Good source of iron, vitamin A and folate

17

What % of obese children become obese adults? What % of obese adolescents become obese adults?

 ~15% of school-age children are overweight  ~40% of obese children become obese adults  ~80% of obese adolescents become obese adults

18

What are some of the possible causes regarding childhood obesity?

 Limited genetic link  Parents with poor diet and exercise habits  Inactivity: ~34 hours a week spent in front of a TV, video game, or computer  Excessive snacking  Reliance on fast foods  Consumption of sugared soft drinks

19

What are the general nutrition concerns during the teen years?

 Energy and nutrient needs are high during adolescence than older age groups  Calcium very important (RDA 1300mg)  Calcium needs greater than any other point in life.  45% of skeletal mass is added during adolescence  Iron needs much higher as well  Low fruit and vegetable intake contributes to potential deficiencies  Diet commonly low in;

20

During adolescence, how do the requirements for energy and micronutrients compare to other age groups?

 Energy and nutrient needs are high during adolescence than older age groups  Calcium very important (RDA 1300mg)  Calcium needs greater than any other point in life.  45% of skeletal mass is added during adolescence  Iron needs much higher as well

21

During adolescence, which vitamins and minerals are commonly low?

 Diet commonly low in; folate, and vitamins A and C, calcium, iron and zinc

22

What happens to calorie needs for adults as they age? What are the reasons for the change in calorie needs?

 Calorie needs generally decrease with age  Due to metabolism decreasing 2-3% every decade  Likely due to slow loss of muscle tissue


24

For elderly, why are protein needs higher than younger adults?

 Helps reduce the loss of lean tissue, maintains immunity, optimizes wound healing and disease recovery

25

For the elderly, what are 5 nutrients of concern?

Folate, V-B6, V-B12, V-D, Calicum