HSES 330 Ch 326 cards

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Name the main parts of the GI tract (including the 3 parts of small intestine)

Food Bolus – Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach Chyme – Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum Waste – Cecum, Ascending Colon, Transverse C., Descending C., Sigmoid C.


What are peristalsis and segmentation?

 Peristalsis  A ring of contraction propelling material along the GI tract  Segmentation  A back-and-forth action that breaks apart food


Identify the sphincters, their locations and functions.

 Cardiac or lower esophageal sphincter  Prevents reflux of stomach content to cause heartburn and ulcers  Pyloric sphincter  Controls the amount of stomach content into the small intestine  Sphincter of Oddi  Controls the amount of bile into the small intestine  Ileocecal sphincter  Prevents large intestine content (bacteria) back up into


What are the functions of saliva?

 Contains enzymes to help breakdown carbohydrates  Provides mucus to lubricate the food for easier swallowing  Contains lysozymes to kill bacteria


What is the function of the epiglottis?

 Epiglottis functions to cover the passage to the airway and prevent food from entering the lungs  bacteria naturally present in food can cause pneumonia


Which factors slow the rate of stomach emptying?

 Distension of small intestine inhibits empyting  Large meal takes longer to leave the stomach  Solid meal takes longer than liquid  More complex meal takes longer  Higher fat meal takes longer


Name the accessory organs and their role in digestion.

 Liver, gallbladder and pancreas  Bile acid from the liver via the gallbladder starts the process of fat digestion  Bicarbonate ions and enzymes from the pancreas neutralize and further the digestion process  Muscle contractions to mix the food with digestive juices  Food remains 3-10 hours in the small intestine  ~95% of digestion takes pla


Describe the anatomy of the small intestine (villi, mircovilli and glycocalyx.).

 The wall is folded  Villi projections are located on the folds  Microvilli is located on the villi  Glycocalyx is located on the microvilli  Increases intestinal surface area 600 x


What is life span of intestinal absorptive cells?

 Newly formed cells constantly migrate to replace dying ones (3-6 days)


What 4 hormones are involved in the digestion of fat, protein, and carbohydrates?

Gastrin, Secretin, Cholecystokinin, Gastric Inhibitory Peptide


What is the function of bicarbonate?

Neutralizes stomach acid


What nutrients are absorbed in the small intestine? The large intestine (colon)?

Small  Absorptive cells (enterocytes) are located on the villi  Most nutrients absorbed in small intestine including;  Macronutrients (fat, carbs and protein)  Most vitamins and minerals  sodium and potassium are absorbed in large intestine Large  Little digestion occurs  Fiber present  Absorption of 85-90% of the water, also sodium and p


What is the difference between portal circulation and lymphatic circulation? Which nutrients are absorbed in both?

1. Portal circulation  Water-soluble vitamins and minerals  Monosaccharides and amino acids  Portal vein 2. Lymphatic circulation  Fat-soluble  Large particles  Thoracic duct  Left subclavian vein


Define prebiotics and probiotics and give examples of each.

Prebiotics - Consumption of foods that promote growth of good bacteria (and not the bad bacteria) Consist of non-digestable food ingredients  Examples: banana, beans  Active ingredients are fructo-oligosachhrides (FOS)  Available in supplemental form Probiotics  Consumption of beneficial bacteria in foods or supplements  Yogurt with “live and


Describe the general characteristics and diet therapy for the following digestive diseases:

Describe the general characteristics and diet therapy for the following digestive diseases:



 Difficulty swallowing  Causes: usually a stroke with subsequent paralysis  Can be temporary or permanent  Risk for aspiration  Food entering the lungs  Swallow study will determine if at risk  Diet therapy may involve liquid, thickened liquid or pureed foods.


GERD (heartburn)

 Acid from the stomach to the esophagus due to relaxing of esophageal sphincter  Symptoms: Gnawing pain in the upper chest  Causes: obesity, pregnancy  Diet Treatment  Smaller, less fatty meals, chew thoroughly, eat slowly  Do not lie down after eating, don’t exercise for 2 hours  Save drinking fluids for between meals  Avoid general list o



 Open sore in lining of stomach or small intestine  Symptoms: pain 2 hours after eating, weakness, anemia, black or bloody stools  Cause: Helicobacter pylori, heavy use of aspirin, excessive acid production in the stomach  Diet Treatment: nothing specific, avoid offending foods, limit caffeine, avoid alcohol, smaller meals



 Precipitation of cholesterol, bile and calcium into stones in the gall bladder  Symptoms: pain after eating  Cause: stones caught in bile ducts  Diet Treatment: avoid greasy foods  many can even tolerate greasy foods after gall bladder has been removed


Celiac disease

 genetic disorder where eating certain types of plant protein, called gluten, sets off an autoimmune response that causes damage to the small intestinal villi. This, in turn, causes the small intestine to lose its ability to absorb the nutrients.  GI Symptoms: chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, malnutrition  Cause: genetic, often disease emerges


Irritable Bowel Syndrome

1. Altered intestinal motility 2. Increased intestinal sensitivity (abdominal pain) 3. likely due to communication issues between digestive tract and the brain *majority of cases occur in 20’s and 30’s, women twice as likely Symptoms; bloating, gas, diarrhea, constipation, mucus in stools Causes; uncertain, but often starts with a trig


Ulcerative colitis

 chronic, recurring disease of the large intestine  Most common in the 30’s, can occur at ages 50-60  Symptoms: abdominal pain, diarrhea, bleeding  Cause: unknown, however may be a defect in the immune system in which the body's antibodies actually injure the colon. Also could be an unidentified microorganism or germ is responsible for the dis


Crohns’ disease

 Chronic, recurrent inflammatory disease of the intestinal tract  Can occur in both small and large intestine  Usually diagnosed in the 20-30 age range  Symptoms: abdominal cramps, diarrhea, blood in stool  Long term: anemia and weight loss  Cause: unknown, however genetics and an immune response are possible factors  Diet Treatment: nothing



 Swollen veins of the rectum and anus  Symptoms: pain, bleeding, itching and irritation  Cause: added stress and pressure to the vessels due to poor bowel habits, constipation, diarrhea, pregnancy, obesity, and especially frequent straining when having a bowel movement.  Diet Treatment  Adequate fiber and fluid



 Pouches or bubbles that protrude out from the colon wall due to extra pressure  Symptoms: severe abdominal pain which can eventually cause total obstruction, bleeding  Causes: low fiber diets  Diet Treatment:  Short-term: low fiber diet  Long-term: follow a high fiber diet, some may need to avoid foods with little seeds and husks  Strawber


Colorectal cancer

 Uncontrolled cell division that evolve into abnormal cells  Symptoms: blood in stool, change in stool, abdominal pain, fatigue  Causes: genetics, high fat, low fiber diet, excessive red meat  Diet Treatment: Diet high in fruits and vegetables and avoid excessive amounts of red meat  diet has more of a preventative affect