ITCS FINAL EXAM95 cards

Tagged as: computer science, nursing, software, biology, language, microbiology, act, business, accounting, government

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1

Node

Each device connected to a network is referred to as a node. Such as a computer, printer, digital video recorder, or a modem.

2

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network

each node conneced to the network can communicate directly with every other node on the network. Thus, all nodes on this type of network are peers (equal).

3

Data transfer rate

also called bandwidth is the maximum speed at which data can be transmitted between two nodes on a network.

4

Fiber-optic cable

is made up of plastic or glass fibers that transmit data at extremely fast speeds.

5

Network adapters on notebook

are devices installed in network nodes that enable the nodes to communicate with each other and to access the network. Most adapters come already installed on your computer or notebook and they are referred to as a Network interface card (NIC)

6

Throughput

is the actual speed of data transfer that is achieved. Throughput is always less than or equal to the data transfer rate. Usually measured in megabits per second (mbps)

7

Twisted-pair cable

is made up of copper wires that are twisted around each other and surrounded by a plastic jacket. Normal telephone cable is a type of twisted-pair cable.

8

Network operating system

This software handles requests for information, internet access, and the use of peripherals for the rest of the network nodes. Some NOS are windows server and SUSE Linux Enterprise server.

9

Router

Transfers packets of data between two or more networks.

10

Radio waves

Wifi is a standard for wireless transmissions using radio waves that is used to connect computing devices to wireless networks and the internet.

11

Wireless network transmissions medium

WiFi is standard for wireless transmissions using radio waves

12

Unshielded twisted-pair cable

The most popular transmission media option for wired ethernet networks. UTP cable is composed of four pairs of wires that are twisted around each other to reduce electrical interface.

13

Analog-to-digital converter

Converts your voice's sound waves into digital signals.


15

Mobile switching center

as you move during your phone call, the mobile switching center monitors the strength of the signal between your cell phone and the closes base station. When the signal is no longer strong enough between your cell phone and the base station, the mobile switching center orders the next base station to take charge of you

16

Operating system storage

The operating system on cell phones is stored on ROM

17

ROM storage

is nonvolatile storage. Which means it is permanent

18

OLED

organic light emitting diode - which allow very bright, sharp imaging and draw less power.

19

Short message service

short message service - often just called text messaging. Is technology that allows you to send short text messages comprising of 160 characters over mobile networks. Uses store and forward technology.

20

Text prediction algorithms

Typing a single letter pulls up a list of popular words beginning with that letter saving you type time

21

Microbrowser

a web browser that is optimized to display web content effectively on the .smaller screen

22

Wireless markup language

the language that makes websites that are specifically designed for wireless devices

23

VoIP

is a form of voice based internet connection that turns a standard internet connection into a means to place phone calls, including long-distance calls. Advantages - for people who make long distance calls it is free or low cost Disadvantage - reliability

24

Portable media player extensions

MP3, AAC for itunes, and WMA

25

Sampling rate

specifies the number of times the analog wave is measured each second. The higher the sampling rate, the more accurately the original wave can be re-created.

26

JPEG file format

Compressed file format for images

27

HDMI

is a single cable, with just one plug, that carries all of the video and all of the audio information.

28

Michelangelo Virus

it is a time bomb virus that was set to trigger every year on march 6th, Michelangelo's birthday

29

Time bomb

is a virus that is triggered by the passage of time or on a certain date.

30

Polymorphic virus

a virus that changes its own code or periodically rewrites itself to avoid detection. Most polymorphic viruses infect a particular type of file such as a .exe files.

31

Virus signature

is a portion of the virus code that is unique to a particular computer virus.

32

Trojan horse

is a program that appears to be something useful or desirable, like a game or screen saver, but while it runs it does something malicious in the background without your knowledge.

33

Firewall

is a software program or hardware device designed to protect computers from hackers.

34

Biometric authentication devices

is a device that reads a unique personal characteristic such as fingerprint or the iris pattern in your eye and converts its pattern to a digital code.

35

Keystroke loggers

monitors keystrokes with the intent of stealing passwords, login ID's, or credit card information.

36

Cyberloafing

or cyberlacking, means doing anything with a computer, while you are being paid to do your job, that is not an approved function of your job.

37

Social engineering

is any technique that uses social skills to generate human interaction that entices individuals to reveal sensitive information.

38

Cyberspace hoax

is an attempt to make someone believe something that is untrue.

39

Flowchart

are visual diagrams of a process, including the decisions that need to be made along the way.

40

Problem and opportunity identification

a way to innovate and expand ideas that a company may have to either break into new markets or seize on a opportunity that fits for them

41

Steps of system development life cycle

1. Problem and opportunity identification 2. Analysis 3. Design 4. Development and documentation 5. Testing and installation 6. Maintenance and evaluation

42

Waterfall system

Refers to the steps of the system development life cycle because each step is dependent on the previous step being completed first.

43

Maintenance and evaluation

Once the system is installed, its performance must be monitored to determine whether it is still meeting the needs of the end users.

44

Algorithm

the sequential steps that describe exactly what the computer program must do to complete the work.

45

Programming

is the process of translating a task into a series of commands a computer will use to perform that task. It involves identifying which parts of a task a computer can perform, describing those tasks in a highly specific and complete manner, and finally, translating the description into the language spoken by the compute

46

Pseudocode

is a text based approach to documenting an algorithm. In Pseudocode, words describe the actions that the algorithm will take.

47

Control structures

is the general term used for keywords in a programming language that allow the programmer to control the flow of the program based on a decision.

48

Test condition

a check to see whether the loop is completed.

49

Object-oreintated programming

programmers identify and define each class, as well as its data and methods. Programmers then determine how classes interact with each other.

50

Inheritance

means that a new class can automatically pick up all of the data and methods of an existing class, and then extend and customize those to fits its own specific needs.

51

Coding

translating an algorithm into programming language is the act of coding.

52

Fourth generation programming languages

more powerful commands allow complex work to be done in a single sentence. Structured query language (SQL)

53

Third generation programming languages

uses symbols and commands to help programmers tell the computer what to do. Easier for humans to read and remember. BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, C/C++, and Java

54

Portability

the capability to move a completed solution easily from one type of computer to another.

55

Compilation

is the process by which code is converted into machine language

56

IDE

include a debugger that helps programmers dissect a program as it runs.

57

Logical errors

caught only when the program executes.

58

Rapid application development (RAD)

an alternative to the waterfall approach of systems development. Instead of just developing detailed system documents before they produce the system, developers create a prototype first, then generate the system documents as they use and remodel the product.

59

Visual basic (VB)

is a powerful programming language used to build a wide range of windows applications. One strength of VB is its simple, quick interface, which is easy for a programmer to learn and use.

60

HTML/XHTML

hypertext markup language or extensible hypertext markup language is required to program for the web, they are not in themselves programming languages. They are just a series of tags that modify the display of text.

61

Tags

a document that will be presented on the web must be written using special symbols called tags. Tags control how a web browser will display the text, images, and other content.

62

XML

eXtensible markup language enables designers to define their own data-based tags, making it much easier for a web site to transfer the key information on its page to another site.

63

Data integrity

means that the data contained in the database is accurate and reliable.

64

Field

a database stores each category of information in a field.

65

Numeric field

stores numbers, can be used to perform calculations

66

Field size

defines the maximum number of characters or numbers that a field can hold

67

Hyperlink field

stores hyperlinks to web pages

68

Primary key

a unique value in record

69

Record

a group of related fields

70

Relational database

organizes data in table format by logically grouping similar data into a relation

71

Binary large objects (BLOBS)

audio clips, video clips, pictures and extremely large documents, because it is encoded in binary form

72

Data dictionary

defines the name, data type, and length of each field in the database.

73

Database management system

is a specially designed application software such as oracle database or Microsoft access that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database to capture and analyze data. 1. Creating databases and entering data 2. Viewing and sorting data 3. Querying data 4. Outputting data

74

Database query

is a question you ask the database so that it provides you with the records you wish to view.

75

Data warehouse

is a large scaled electronic repository of data that contains and organizes all the data related to an organization in one place.

76

Referential integrity

means that for each value in the foreign key of one table, there is a corresponding value in the primary key of the related table.

77

Exception reports

shows conditions that are unusual or that need attention by users of the system.

78

Management information system

provides timely and accurate information that enables managers to make critical business decisions.

79

Real time processing

means that the database is queried and updated while the transaction is taking place.

80

Knowledge based system

provides additional intelligence that supplements the user's own intellect and makes the DSS more effective

81

Artificial intelligence

is a branch of computer science that deals with the attempt to create computers that think like humans

82

Network

is a group of two or more computers that are configured to share information and resources such as printers, files and databases.

83

Intranet

is a private network setup by a business or an organization that is used exclusively by a select group of employees, customers, and suppliers, volunteers, or supporters.

84

Authentication server

is a server that keeps track of who is logging on to the network and which services on the network are available to each user

85

Application server

acts a repository for application software

86

Network topology

refers to the physical or logical arrangement of computers, transmission media cable and other network components.

87

Coaxial cable

used for cable television, It consists of four main components 1. the core is the very center and is used for transmitting the signal 2 a solid layer of nonconductive insulation material 3. a layer of braided metal shielding covers the insulation to reduce interference with signals traveling in the core 4. an external

88

Frame

is a container that can hold multiple data packets.

89

MAC address

Media access control address - is made up of 6 two position characters

90

Bridge

is a device that is used to send data between these different collision domains

91

Internet funding

Tax payers, the national science foundation which is a government funded agency

92

Internet backbone

the main paths of the internet, along which data travels

93

Packet switching

is the communication methodology that makes computer communication efficient

94

Dynamic addressing

in which your computer is assigned a temporary address from an available pool of IP addresses

95

Static addressing

means that the IP address for a computer never changes and is most likely assigned manually by a network administrator or ISP