Interpersonal Communication Exam 151 cards

Tagged as: language, government, computer science, physics, act

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1

What are the three types of noise?

External, physiological, and psychological

2

What is a channel?

The medium through which a message passes from sender to receiver.

3

Principles that guide our understanding of communication.

Communication is transactional. Content and relational dimension Intentional and unintentional Irreversible Unrepeatable

4

Quantitative Interpersonal Communication

Communication between two people

5

Qualitative Interpersonal Communication

Communication in which people treat each other as unique individuals as opposed to objects

6

What distinguishes qualitative interpersonal communication from less personal exchanges?

Uniqueness, irreplaceability, interdependence, disclosure, intrinsic rewards

7

Communication Competence

The ability to achieve one's goals in a manner that is personally acceptable and, ideally, acceptable to others. Effectiveness and appropriateness

8

Characteristics of Competent Communicators

A large répertoire of skills Adaptability Ability to perform skillfully Involvement Empathy/perspective taking Cognitive complexity Self-monitoring

9

What is culture?

The language, values, beliefs, traditions, and customs people share and learn.

10

What is an in-group?

A group you identify with

11

What is an out-group?

A group you are outside of/ a group you label as different

12

What is social identity?

The part of the self-concept that is based on membership in groups

13

What is a co-culture?

A group within an encompassing culture with a perceived identity Ex. Gangs

14

What is enculturation?

How you learned about your culture Ex. School, government, parents

15

What is ethnocentrism?

The belief that your culture is better than all the other cultures

16

What is acculturation?

When you learn about a culture other than yours

17

How do cultures differ?

Power distances Achievement & Nurturing Uncertainty Avoidance Individual & Collective High-Context and Low-Context

18

Power Distances

Extent to which power is concentrated in the hands of a few or distributed throughout the people.

19

What is asynchronous communication?

Communication that occurs when there is a time gap between when the message is sent and when it is received

20

What is synchronous communication?

Communication that occurs in real time

21

What is disinhibition?

Expressing messages without considering the consequences of doing so

22

What is self-concept?

A relatively stable set of perceptions you hold of yourself

23

What is self-esteem?

Part of the self-concept that involves evaluations of self-worth

24

What is reflected appraisal?

A mirroring of the judgments of those around you

25

What is social comparison?

Evaluating ourselves in terms of how we compare with others

26

What is a reference group?

People we use to evaluate our own characteristics

27

What is cognitive conservatism?

Seeking information that conforms to an existing self-concept

28

What is self-fulfilling prophecy?

The causal relationship that occurs when a person's expectations of an event and her or his subsequent behavior based on those expectations make the outcome more likely to occur than would otherwise have been true

29

Two types of self-fulfilling prophecy

1. Self-imposed: your own expectations influence your behavior. 2. External: when a person's expectations govern another's actions, whether positive or negative

30

Self-fulfilling prophecy Two effects: "Pygmalion" and "Golem"

Pygmalion: Effect=Positive Golem: Effect=Negative

31

What is perceived self?

The person you believe yourself to be in moments of honest self-reflection. Unlikely to reveal this self to another person.

32

What is presenting self?

An image we want to present to others

33

What is facework?

The nonverbal ways we act to maintain our own presenting images and the image of others

34

What is identity management?

Process we go through to communicate the impression we want others to have of ourselves

35

What is self-disclosure?

Every verbal or nonverbal behavior we engage in is self-revealing Distinguishing factors: honesty, depth, availability of information, and context of sharing

36

The Johari WIndow

Part 1: Open area; information of which both you and the other person are aware. Part 2: Blind area; information of which you are unaware, but the other person knows. Part 3: Hidden area; information that you know, but aren't willing to reveal to others. Part 4: Unknown area; information unknown to you and others.

37

Equivocation language

Two or more plausible meanings Used for face-saving

38

What is first-order reality?

Physically observable qualities of a thing or situation

39

What is second-order reality?

Involve our attaching meaning to first-order things or situations

40

Steps in the perception process

1. Selection 2. Organization 3. Interpretation

41

What is punctuation?

Determination of causes and effects in a series of interactions. I just withdrew, because she was nagging. I was nagging, because he was withdrawing.

42

What is interpretation?

Making sense of our perceptions

43

What is negotiation?

The process by which communicators influence each other's perceptions through communication

44

What are narratives?

Personal stories created to make sense of our personal world

45

Influences on Perception

Physiological Psychological Social influences Cultural influences

46

What is attribution?

Attach meaning to behavior

47

What is stereotyping?

Exaggerated beliefs associated with a categorizing system

48

What is halo effect?

Tendency to form an overall positive impression of a person on the basis of one positive characteristic

49

What is confirmation bias?

We seek out and organize our impressions to support an opinion

50

What is self-serving bias?

We judge ourselves more charitably than we do others.

51

What is empathy?

The ability to re-create another person's perspective, to experience the world from his/her point of view Three dimensions of empathy: Perspective taking Emotional contagion Genuine concern