Interpersonal Communication Exam 258 cards

Tagged as: nursing, geometry, language, act, cosmetology, finance

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1

Phonological rules

Govern how sounds are combined to form a word

2

Syntactic rules

Govern the way symbols can be arranged

3

Semantic rules

Govern the meanings of statements

4

Pragmatic rules

Tell what uses and interpretations of a message are appropriate in a given context

5

Coordinated management of meaning (CMM) theory

Some types of pragmatic rules that operate in everyday conversations

6

The Ogden and Richards "Triangle of Meaning"

Demonstrates an indirect relationship between a word (symbol) and what it represents (referent). The human mind is what bridges this gap.

7

Affiliation

Building solidarity with others through speech

8

Convergence

Process of adapting one's speech style to match that of others

9

Divergence

Speaking in a way that emphasizes differences

10

Powerless speech mannerisms

Forms of speech that communicate to others a lack of power in the speaker Hedges, hesitations, polite forms, tag questions, and disclaimers

11

Sexist language

Words, phrases, and expressions that unnecessarily differentiate between females and males or exclude, trivialize, or diminish either sex

12

Racist language

Reflects a worldview that classifies members of one racial group as superior and others as inferior

13

Ambiguous language

Words and phrases that have more than one commonly accepted definition

14

Abstraction

Generalizing about similarities between several objects, people, ideas, or events

15

The abstraction ladder

The higher the level of abstraction, the more vague the statement becomes

16

Euphemism

Innocuous term substituted for blunt ones; softens the impact of unpleasant information

17

Relative language

Gains meaning by comparison; fails to link the relative word to a more measurable term

18

Static evaluation

Mistaken assumptions that people or things are consistent and unchanging

19

"It" statements

Replaces the personal pronoun "I" with the less immediate construction "it." "I" language identifies the speaker as the source of a message. "It" statements deflect responsibility

20

Nonverbal communication

Messages expressed by nonlinguistic means

21

Emblems

Culturally understood substitutes for verbal expression

22

Regulators

Cues that help control verbal interaction

23

High self-monitors

Are better at hiding their deception

24

Nonverbal cues

May be more important than verbal messages in creating impressions

25

Manner

The way we act, stand and move, control facial expressions, vocal adjustments

26

Appearance

The way we dress, artifacts we wear, hair, makeup, scents, and so on

27

Setting

Physical items we surround ourselves with, for example, personal belongings, vehicles, place we live

28

Types of Nonverbal Communication

Face and eyes Body movement Touch Voice Distance Time Physical attractiveness Clothing Physical environment

29

Oculesics

Study of how the eyes communicate Gazing, interest, conversational turn-taking

30

Kinesics

Study of how people communicate through body movement

31

Manipulators

Movements in which one part of the body grooms, massages, rubs, holds, pinches, picks, or otherwise manipulates another part

32

Haptics

Study of touching

33

Paralanguage

The way a message is spoken Vocal rate, pronunciation, pitch, tone, volume, emphasis

34

Disfluencies

Reinforce/ contradict message that words convey

35

Proxemics

How communication is affected by use, organization, and perception of space and distance

36

Territoriality

The area that serves as an extension of our physical being

37

Chronemics

How humans use and structure time

38

Artifacts

Clothing, body adornment, physical environment, color

39

Listening

Process of making sense of others' spoken messages

40

Hearing

Process in which sound waves strike the eardrum and cause vibrations that are transmitted to the brain

41

Mindless listening

When we react to others' messages automatically and routinely without much mental investment

42

Mindful listening

Giving careful and thoughtful attention and responses to the messages we receive

43

Listening fideltiy

Degree of congruence between what a listener understands and what the message-sender was attempting to communicate

44

Invitational attitude

Desire to learn more about perspectives other than our own

45

Pseudolisteners

Give the appearance of being attentive: They look you in the eye, and they may even nod and smile, but their minds are in another world

46

Stage hogs

People interested only in expressing their ideas and don't care about what anyone else has to say

47

Defensive listeners

Take innocent comments as personal attacks

48

Ambushers

Listen carefully to you, but only because he or she is collecting information that will be used to attack what you have to say

49

Silent listening

Staying attentive and nonverbally responsive without offering any verbal feedback

50

Questioning

Occurs when the listener asks the speaker for additional information

51

Sincere questions

Aimed at understanding others

52

Counterfeit questions

Really disguised attempts to send a message, not receive one

53

Paraphrasing

Feedback that restates, in your own words, the message you thought the speaker sent

54

Empathizing

A response style listeners use when they want to show that they identify with a speaker

55

Supporting

Reveal the listener's solidarity with the speaker's situation Comforting ability/ social support= most important communication skills for friendship

56

Analyzing

Interpretation of a speaker's message

57

Evaluating

Appraises the sender's thoughts or behaviors in some way; can be favorable or unfavorable

58

Advising

You should