Interpersonal Communication Exam 356 cards

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1

Similarity thesis

Relationships based on similar likes, economic class, educational standing, values. Similarities are validating. Enable fairly accurate predictions.

2

Complementarity

Differences strengthen a relationship when each partner's characteristics satisfy the other's needs.

3

Exchange Theory

We often seek out people who can give us rewards that are greater than or equal to the costs we encounter in dealing with them.

4

Rewards

Outcomes that we desire

5

Costs

Undesirable outcomes

6

Knapp's Initiating Stage

You are interested in making contact. You demonstrate that you are a person worth talking to. Superficial stage. Difficult stage for shy people.

7

Knapp's Experimenting Stage

Search for common ground. Small talk.Information at this stage depends on the nature of relationship we seek.

8

Knapp's Intensifying Stage

Friendship: Shared activities. Romantic relationships: express feelings directly, as for support, give tokens of affection. Relational excitement and euphoria.

9

Knapp's Integrating Stage

Identity as a social unit. Social circles merge. Common property is designated. Partners develop routines and rituals. Sense of obligation grows. Requests are straightforward; expectations heightened. Uncertainty decreases, which enhances attraction and closeness.

10

Knapp's Bonding Stage

Symbolic public gestures to show the world that the relationship exists. Engagement, sharing residence, written or verbal pledge. Relationships don't have to be romantic to achieve bonding. Important turning point.

11

Knapp's Differentiating Stage

Re-establishment of individual identities. Normal part of relational maintenance--key is maintaining commitment while creating space for individuality.

12

Knapp's Circumscribing Stage

Communication decreases in quantity and quality. Subtle hints of dissatisfaction grow more evident. Suppression of true relationship status. Restrictions and restraints occur.

13

Knapp's Stagnating Stage

Relationship: Hollow shell of its former self. Couples are unenthusiastic, have no sense of joy or novelty.

14

Knapp's Avoiding Stage

Distance is created, directly or indirectly. Expressing detachment--avoiding the other person altogether. Avoiding involvement--ignoring, no touching, superficial politeness. Showing antagonism--behaving in a hostile way; treating the other person as "lesser." Mentally dissociate--thinking about the other person as les

15

Knapp's Terminating Stage

Can be short or drawn out. Termination is a learning experience.

16

Dialectical tensions

Conflicts that arise when two opposing or incompatible forces exist simultaneously.

17

Integration-separation dialect

Internal~ Connection-autonomy dialect Want to connect, but also maintain independence. "We don't spend enough time together." "I'm feeling smothered." External~ Inclusion-seclusion dialect Desire to go out, be with others, but also be private, on our own

18

Stability-Change dialect

Internal~ Predictability-novelty dialect Too much predictability gets boring. Too much change increases uncertainty, stress. External~ Conventionality-uniqueness dialect Want to appear somewhat conventional, we are like y'all. Also want to be unique, special.

19

Expression-privacy dialect

Internal~ Openness-closedness dialect Want to disclose, but also want to keep some things private. External~ Revelation-concealment dialect Ready to make relationship public? Or prefer to keep things private? Want to talk about your relationship, but then again, maybe not about all things.

20

Communication Climate

Social tone of a relationship.

21

Confirming Communication

Messages that convey valuing.

22

23

Recgonition

Confirming message: most fundamental

24

Acknowledgement

Confirming message: listening, attending, responding

25

Endorsement

Confirming message: highest form of valuing. Agreeing

26

Argumentativeness

Disagreeing Message: presenting and defending positions on issues while attacking positions of others.

27

Complaining

Disagreeing Message: register dissatisfaction, but not prepared to argue.

28

Aggressiveness

Disagreeing Message: most destructive way to disagree. Putting others down.

29

Impervious response

Disconfirming message: ignore

30

Interrupting response

Disconfirming message: interrupting

31

Irrelevant response

Disconfirming message: totally unrelated to what someone just said.

32

Tangential response

Disconfirming message: steer conversation in new direction.

33

Ambiguous response

Disconfirming message: more than one meaning

34

Incongruous response

Disconfirming message: two messages that contradict each other, verbal and nonverbal

35

Defensiveness

A response to protect one's presenting self and face from an attack.

36

Face-threatening acts

Messages that seem to challenge the image we want to project.

37

Conflict

An expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from the other party in achieving their goals.

38

Expressed struggle

All people involved must know that some disagreement exists.

39

Perceived incompatible goals

One wins, the other loses.

40

Perceived scarce resources

Not enough of something to go around.

41

Interdependent

"We're all in this together."

42

Avoidance (Lose-Lose)

When people nonassertively ignore or stay away from conflict.

43

Accommodation

When we allow others to have their own way rather than asserting our point of view. Motivation of accommodation matters: genuine vs. martyr

44

Competition (Win-Lose)

Win-lose approach to conflict that involves high concern for self and low concern for others.

45

Compromise (Negotiated Give-Give)

Gives both people at least some of what they want, although both sacrifice part of their goals.

46

Collaboration (Win-Win)

Win-win solutions to conflict that satisfy all parties involved. High degree of concern for self and others; goal of solving problems in "our way." Cooperative problem solving is rare.

47

Passive Aggression

When a communicator expresses dissatisfaction in a disguised manner. "Crazymaking": Tactics designed to punish another person without direct confrontation.

48

Friendship

A voluntary relationship that provides social support.

49

Narratives

Stories we use to describe our personal worlds and keep relationships operating harmoniously

50

Conversation orientation

Degree to which families favor an open climate of discussion of a wide array of topics.

51

Conformity orientation

Degree to which family communication stresses uniformity of attitudes, values, beliefs.

52

Consensual

Families high in conversation orientation/conformity orientation

53

Pluralistic

Families high in conversation orientation and low in conformity orientation.

54

Protective

Families low in conversation orientation/high in conformity orientation

55

Laissez-faire

Families low in conversation orientation and conformity orientation.

56

Commitment

Formed and reinforced through communication.