KNES360 Exam 2 42 cards

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2

What is a typical Ventilatory perfusion ratio and what happens after an acute bout of exercise?

A typical ratio is 1 and it increases after an acute bout of exercise


4

Define oxygen hemoglobin saturation and give average values at rest for a young, healthy, person at sea level. List 2 ways to measure or estimate blood parameter in exercise physiology

Each hemoglobin molecule can carry 4 oxygen molecules. The oxygen hemoglobin saturation is the percentage of hemoglobin in RBC's that are completely saturated with oxygen. Average = 96-98% An oximeter on the fingertip or ear lobe can estimate oxygen saturation by color density in small capillaries Blood from radia

5

List 4 factors, by importance, that affect VO2max

Exercise specificity (Principle of initial values = ^training = v response to training) Genetics (account for 25-50% of variation between individuals as well as individual's response to training) Gender(10% lower in trained women, 20-25% lower in sedentary women) Age (increase in age has a correlation with lower activi

6

Working as a physical trainer, fitness consultant, or coach, what is the easiest and most practical way for you to document that your client or athlete has shown significant CV adaptations to RVEET over time?

Measure resting HR under controlled conditions before RVEET training and after training to see a significant decrease Record submax HR response to exercise and document recovery HR returns to resting levels more rapidly in the trained state an acute bout of exercise


8

Factors that account for the increase blood flow to active skeletal muscle during maximal acute exercise post RVEET include:

An increase in new capillaries in the trained muscles greater recruitment of existing capillaries more effective blood flow redistribution to active skeletal muscle an increase in TBV




12

Potential alterations in TBV and PV after RVEET have a positive effect on endurance exercise performance due to the fact that:

The amount of blood returning to the left ventricle increases, EDV is increase, thus stretching the cardiac fibers to a great length and stroke volume is increase.






18

Respiratory adaptations to RVEET in healthy but sedentary humans at sea level include the following:

- an increase in pulmonary ventilation (Ve) during maximal exercise - an increase in pulmonary diffusion at the respiratory membrane (DCL) during max exercise



21

The human kidney plays a role in the cardiovascular adaptation to endurance exercise training. How?

-An increase in the production of erythopoietin that increases RBC production - increase the retention of water in the renal tubules which increase plasma volume - showing a positive adaptation in the 1st few training sessions via an increase in plasma protein (albumin)

22

The respiratory system can be limiting for endurance performance in what types of subjects due to a reduction in PaO2 during acute exercise?

-COPD patients - Sedentary people and endurance athletes that attempt to perform maximal exercise at moderate altitude - in some, but not all, highly trained, elite endurance athletes exercising at sea level of slightly above


24

How do you measure the SEC of an athlete in the exercise physio lab?

measure the exercise time to exhaustion at 70 vo2max

25

In the hyperoxic cycle ergometer training study by Perry et al where the young untrained subjects breathed either 60 O2 (H) or normal O2 (N) for weeks of exercise training it was shown that:

- Power output of the cycle erogometer was 8% higher while training during H breathing - H showed a greater increase in time to exhaustion VS N - VO2max values were not significantly greater after H training compared to N




29

What does a swimming flume measure?

- VO2max - anaerobic threshold - submaximal endurance capacity

30

The study "Exercise capacity and mortality in older men" employed what?

GXT for the male subjects was accoraccording to bruce or ramp protocols - the establishment of fitness categories for each subject based on peak METS anchored on GXT - a retrospective research design - risk of dying for younger old and older old age groups in study decreased significantly with increasing levels of phy

31

What are the respiratory advantages to exercise?

- higher diffusing capacity of the lungs (DCl) - High cardiac output - greater alveolar surface area - lower resistance across respiratory membrane interface

32

Exercise implications

Dyspnea- shortness of breath ( common in unfit and COPD patients) H

33

Hemodynamic concept of RPP

RPP=HR*SBP during rest and atexercise RPP is used as a non

34

What is a side stitch and how do you fix it?

caused by ischemia in diaphragm and mechnical pull of diaphragm ligaments to relieve this, press on abdomen and reduce exercise intensity

35

What does an Echocardiogram measure?

EDV SV ESV wall thickness EDD can also tell if there is a pressure overload and volume overload

36

What are RVEET parameters affected by exercise training?

<3 size - ventricles become larger with endurance training and not with strength training stroke volume- goes up 30% HR

37

What does anaerobic threshold tell you?

- is a point in intense exercise at which metabolism becomes increasingly more anaerobic - reflects the lactate threshold under most conditions (not always) - identified by an increase in Ve/VO2 without


39

Respiratory limitations to performance part 2

Airway resistance and gas diffusion usually don't limit performace in normal, healthy individuals but do in subjects with respiratory disorders which can limit performance

40

Define two types of exercise training

muscular endurance (peripheral)- ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustrain high intensity, repetatively for about 1-2 min in bursts (related to muscular strength and anaerobic threshold) Cardiorespiratory= ability for the whole body to sustain prolonged steady

41

Relations and effects of endurance capacity

VO2max can increase 15-20% - Submax endurance capacity - closely related to competative endurance performance and is determined vy VO2max, AT, Lactate T. - hard to

42

What is lactate threshold and what does it tell you?

- an indicator of fitness level - with training the threshold increases - lactate treshold