Lit Final Notes55 cards

Tagged as: literature, philosophy, nursing, psychology, history, religion, capitals, language

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What does literary fiction do?

challenges the reader


What are three big names in literary fiction?

Melville, Poe, and Hawthorne


literary criticism?

based on basic ideas of what literature should be, and showed how the authors didn’t hold up to those standards. Before this time, it was more like literary response, or literary cheerleading and book reviews.


What was Hawthorne's essay on Literary standards?

"Preface to the House of Seven Gables" (he shows readers what he wants them to see when they read it)


What was Poe's essay on literary standards?

"The Philosophy of Composition" (literary criticism of poetry)


Duality of interpretation?

interpret the fiction in 2 ways- literally and symbolically


Hawthorne said literature shouldn't always be about the heart, but?

be about the heart and be related to truth


Hawthorn wrote for what magazines early on?

The Token and Twice Told Tales


Hawthorn criticized and distributed what?

the controlling forces of American culture


Hawthorne wrote a lot about what kind of character?

lonely, isolated individual- a solitary man


What theme did Hawthorne touch on quite a bit?

the way the Puritans and religious people seemed obsessed with morality, sexual repression, guilt, and salvation only after death.


What did Hawthorne believe in?

individual morality, sexual freedom, freedom of guilt, and salvation during life. This was a very modern point of view.


What literary devices did Hawthorne use?

allegory, irony, ambiguity, and paradox


what is allegory?

story that is intentionally devised to have a separate meaning


Why did Hawthorne move away from idealistic to reality?

had to establish himself as both a family man and writer


Why did Hawthorne write a lot a bout guilt?

his grandfather- salem witch trials



What are three of Hawthorne's themes?

1. Use of intentional literary devices to imply multiple interpretations 2. The Puritan Cycle- they are used as subject matter- think in terms of good and evil 3. Psychology- why people do the things they do


what is romanticism?

replaces God as the center of the universe with man as the center of the universe.


What was Poe's character like?

Was sarcastic, belittling, and cruel if someone’s work didn’t measure up to his standards


Poe gained some popularity because of his publishing of what?

collection of short stories, Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque.


What are two important things in poetry?

1. Sound- rhyme and sound effects 2. Imagery- visual picture


What were Poe's contribution to American Literature?

1. Literary Criticism 2. Horror Fiction (Short story) 3. Detective Story (Short story) 4. Contribution to poetry


What are Poe's 3 detective stories?

“The Purloined Letter” “The Mystery of Marie Riget” “The Murder of the Rue Morge”


What is the same in all of Poe's detective stories?

- All set in Paris - All narrated by the sidekick of the detective - C. Auguste Dupin is the detective of all 3 stories


Melville was a sailor, what kind of perspective did that give him?

an idealistic view of equality because everyone on the ship was equally dependent on everyone else.


What did Melville write about?

opposition to boundaries and race


What is naturalism?

point of view that man lives in nature and is not fully a part of nature. Nature doesn’t care about man and if you’re not careful, nature will kill you. Man can appreciate nature, but nature doesn’t care if you appreciate it or not. This point of view is expressed very much in Moby Dick. It is the opposite of Romantici


What is satire?

literary way of criticizing society through humor, over-exaggeration, and under-exaggeration.


Who were Emily Dickinson's editors?

TW Higginson and Mabel Loomis


What is imagism?

creating a very focused, physical image that is meant to convey emotion


What is organic form?

the action being described goes along with the language that is used. An example of organic form is Dickinson’s poem 359. The long and short alternating lines represent a birds wings flying.


Whitman's view was what?

macrocosm- which expresses as many dimensions of reality as possible


What is allegory?

A story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one.


What is irony?

The expression of one's meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect.


what is ambiguity?

Uncertainty or inexactness of meaning in language


what is grotesque?

a character or location that is irregular, extravagant or fantastic in form


what is an unreliable narrator?

An unreliable narrator is a narrator, whether in literature, film, or theatre, whose credibility has been seriously compromised