Med Terminology Chp 9 (2)51 cards

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1

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

influences the absorption of water by kidney tubules

2

oxytocin

influences uterine contraction

3

testes

located on both sides within the scrotum in the male; secrete testosterone

4

testosterone

affects masculinization and reproduction

5

thymus gland

located in the mediastinal cavity anterior to and above the heart; secretes thymosin

6

thymosin

regulates immune response

7

thyroid gland

located in front of neck; secretes triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and calcitonin

8

Triiodothyronine (T3) & Thyroxine (T4)

Thyroid hormones; regulate metabolism

9

calcitonin

regulates calcium and phosphorous metabolism

10

exophtalmos/exopthalmus

protrusion of one or both eyeballs, because of thyroid dysfunction or a tumor behind eyeball

11

glucosuria/glycosuria

glucose in urine

12

hirsutism

shaggy; an excessive growth of hair, espec. in unusual places (eg woman with a beard)

13

hypercalcemia

abnormally high level of calcium in the blood

14

hypocalcemia

abnormally low level of calcium in the blood

15

hyperglycemia

high blood sugar

16

hypoglycemia

low blood sugar

17

hyperkalemia

abnormally high level of potassium in blood

18

hypokalemia

abnormally low level of potassium in blood

19

hypersecretion

abnormally increased secretion

20

hyposecretion

abnormally decreased secretion

21

ketosis/ ketoacidosis/ diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

presence of an abnormal amt of ketone bodies in the blood and urine indicating an abnormal use of carbohydrates, such as in uncontrolled diabetes and starvation

22

metabolism

all chemical processes in the body that result in growth, generation of energy, elimination of waste, and other body functions

23

polydipsia

excessive thirst

24

polyuria

excessive urination

25

Cushing Sydrome

caused by an excessive level of cortisol or tx of glucocorticoid hormones. Sx include: upper body obesity, facial puffiness, hyperglycemia, weakness, thin and easily bruised skin with stretch marks, hypertension, and osteoporosis

26

Adrenal virilism

excessive output of adrenal secretion of androgen in adult women caused by a tumor or hyperplasia; evidenced by amenorrhea, acne, hirsutism, and deepening of the voice

27

Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

metabolic disorder caused by the absence or insufficient production of insulin secreted by the pancreas, resulting in hyperglycemia and glucosuria

28

Type 1 DM

diabetes in which no Beta cell production of insulin occurs and the pt is depending on insulin for survival

29

Type 2 DM

diabetes in which either the body produces insufficient insulin or insulin resistance occurs; the patient usually is not dependent on insulin for survival

30

hyperinsulinism

condition resulting from an excessive amt of insulin in the blood that draws sugar out of the bloodstream, resulting in hypoglycemia, fainting, and convulsions; often caused by an overdose of insulin or by a tumor of the pancreas

31

Pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas

32

hyperparathyroidism

hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands, usually caused by a tumor

33

hypoparathyroidism

hyposecretion of the parathyroid glands

34

acromegaly

disease characterized by enlarged features, esp of the face and hands, caused by hypersecretion of the pituitary growth hormone after puberty, when normal bone growth has stopped; most often caused by pituitary tumor

35

pituitary dwarfism

condition of congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone that slows growth and causes short, yet proportionate, stature (not affecting intelligence); often tx during childhood w/ growth hormone; other forms of dwarfism are most often caused by genetic

36

pituitary gigantism

condition of hypersecretion of growth hormone during childhood bone development that leads to an abnormal overgrowth of bone, esp of the long bones; most often caused by a pituitary tumor

37

goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by thyroid dysfunction, tumor, lack of iodine in the diet, or inflammation

38

hyperthyroidism

condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by nervousness, weight loss, rapid pulse, protrusion of the eyeball, goiter, etc

39

Graves disease

most common form of hyperthyroidism; autoimmune defect creates antibodies that stimulate the overproduction of thyroid hormones

40

hypothyroidism

condition of hyposecretion of thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in sluggishness, slow pulse, and often, obesity

41

myxedema

advanced hypothyroidism in adults characterized by sluggishness, slow pulse, puffiness in the hands and face, and dry skin

42

cretinism

condition of congenital hypothyroidism in children that results in a lack of mental development and dwarfed physical stature; thyroid gland is congenitally absent or imperfectly developed

43

blood sugar (BS)/ glood glucose

measurement of level of sugar in blood

44

fasting blood sugar (FBS)

measurement of blood sugar level after fasting (not eating) for 12 hours

45

postprandial blood sugar (PPBS)

measurement of blood sugar level after a meal (2 hours later)

46

glucose tolerance test (GTT)

measurement of body's ability to metabolize carbs after administering a prescribed amt of glucose after a fasting period, then measuring blood and urine levels for glucose levels every hour therafter for 4-6 hours

47

glycohemoglobin/ glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc)

a molecule (fraction) in hemoglobin, the level of which rises in the blood as a result of an increased level of blood sugar; common blood test used in diagnosing and tx of diabetes

48

electrolyte panel

measurement of level of ions (Na, K, Cl) along with Co2 in the blood; electrolytes necessary for maintaining water balance as well as nerve, heart, muscle activity

49

thyroid function study

measurement of thyroid hormone levels in blood plasma to determine efficiency of glandular secretions, including T3, T4, and TSH

50

Urine sugar and ketone studies

chemical tests to determine presence of sugar or ketone bodies in urine; used as screen for diabetes

51

Computed Tomograpy (CT)

CT of head is used to botain a transverse horizontal view of pituitary gland