PSY 101 Exam 1 Part 250 cards

Tagged as: biology, nursing, education, act, psychology, medical, medicine

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1

Standard Deviation

measure of variation from the mean

2

Some problems with correlation

-correlation does not equal causation -3rd variable correlation

3

Statistical significance

how likely the obtained results occurred by chance -P values of less than .05 -vertical lines indicate 95% confidence intervals -to show findings are not due to chance

4

Neurons

a unique type of cell that can receive and transmit info electrochemically (100 bil in the brain)

5

Glial

the support cells which keep the neuron healthy and efficient

6

Cell Body

coordinates the information processing tasks and keeps the cell alive

7

Dendrite

receive info from other neurons and relay it to the cell body

8

Axon

takes info from the cell body and relays it down

9

Myelin

surrounds the neuron, which protects it, and helps move actions along

10

Action potential

a neuron sends information down its axon to communicate with another neuron


12

Resting Potential

difference in voltage between inside and outside cell membranes when cell is at rest

13

Resting state

-70 milavills

14

Sodium-Potassium Pump

pumps 3 sodium in for every 1 potassium

15

During action potential

Na+ gates open, Na+ ions enter the axon -70 to -55, neuron will fire -all or none process -after action potential, Na+ gates close, K+ gates open, K+ flow out

16

Refracting period

Goes past -70: the gates won't open again

17

Synapse

a specialized junction between two neurons where chemical messages cross form one to the other

18

Synapse 2

-the action potential travels down the axon -stimulates the release of neurotransmitters from vesicles

19

Synapse 3

neurotransmitters cross the synaptic gap to find their receptors. Once bound, they will initiate a reaction in neighboring neuron -inhibitory reaction or exciteatory reaction -presynaptic cell

20

Synapse 3

Neurotransmitters also bind to autoreceptors on the first neuron to let it know when to stop releasing more neurotransmitters -post synaptic cell -pre-synaptic cell

21

Synaptic gap

where chemicals are released

22

Neurotransmitters

Acteylcholine (Ach) Dopamine Glutamine GABA Seratonin Endorphins

23

Actetylcholine

between the neuromuscular junction; enables muscle fundtion, regualtes attention, learning, memory, sleeping and dreaming

24

Dopamine

movement, pleasure, motivation, and arousal

25

Glutamine

a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in learning and memory

26

GABA

the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter

27

Norepinephrine

helps control mood and arousal

28

Serotonin

regulates hunger, sleep, arousal, and aggressive behavior

29

Endorphins

act within the pain pathways and emotion centers of the brain

30

Neurotransmitters and behavior

-a drug that can act at the synapse on a specific receptor site

31

Agonist

mimics

32

Antagonist

blocks

33

Midbrain

Tectum & Tegmentum -involved in orientation, movement, and arousal

34

Hindbrain

Pons, Medulla, Cerebellum, Recticular Formation

35

Pons

relays info from the cerebellum to the rest of the body

36

Medulla

controls breathing and heart rate

37

Cerebellum

coordination, balance, and timing

38

Recticular Formation

arousal, sleep, wakefullness

39

Forebrain

Cerebral Cortex (4 lobes), Pituitary gland, thalamus, basal ganglia, limbic system (hypothalamus, amygdale, hippocampus)

40

Frontal Lobe

planning of movements, working memory (events that recently happened) -prefrontal cortex -primary motor cortex: fine movement control

41

Parietal Lobe

body sensations -primary somatosensory cortex

42

43

Temporal Lobe

hearing, advanced visual processing

44

Pituitary gland

produces hormones

45

Thalamus

relays and filters info from the senses and transmits it to the cerebral cortex

46

Basal Ganglia

a group of subcortical nuclei ivolved in intentional movements

47

Hypothalamus

motivation

48

Amygdale

emotion

49

Hippocampus

memory, learning

50

Homunculus

-Motor cortex -Somatosensory cortex