PSY 101 Exam 1 Part 345 cards

Tagged as: nursing, psychology, criminal justic, law, medical, physics, biology

 copy deck Copy deck

1

Heritability

measure variability of behavioral traits that can be accounted for by genetic factors

2

Monozygotic Twins

identical, 100% shared genes

3

Dizygotic Twins

fraternal, 50% shared genes

4

Sensation

simple awareness due to the stimulation of a sense organ

5

Perception

organization, identification, and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation

6

Transduction

when many sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into neural signals sent to the central nervous system

7

Psychophysics

methods that measure the strength of a stimulus and the observer's sensitivity to that stimulus

8

Absolute threshold

the minimal intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus

9

Just Noticeable Difference (JND)

the minimal change in a stimulus that can just barely be detected

10

Weber's Law

the JND of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity

11

Signal Detection Theory

the response to a stimulus depends both on a person's sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of noise and on a person's criterion

12

Sensory Adaptation

sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to decline over time as an organism adapts to current conditions

13

Cornea

Smooth outer tissue

14

Pupil

hole in the colored part of the eye

15

Iris

colored part of eye

16

Retina

light sensitive tissue lining the back part of the eyeball

17

Cones

detect color, operate under normal daylight conditions, and allow us to focus on fine detail (retina contains 6 mil cones, densely packed in the fovea, where vision is clearest)

18

Rods

become active only under low-light conditions (120 mil rods, evenly spread around the retin

19

Receptive Field

the region fo the sensory surface taht, when stimulated, causes a change in teh firing rate of that neuron

20

Lateral inhibition

some cells are excited while others are inhibited; these opposing responses interact, which means that the signals they send through the bipolar cells to teh RGC are based on differing levels of receptor activation

21

Trichromatic color representation

the pattern of repsonding across the 3 types of cones provides a unique code for each color

22

Ventral (below) stream

travels across the occipital lobe into the lower levles of the temporal lobes and includes brain areas that represent an object's shape and identity (what)

23

Dorsal (above) stream

travels up from the occipital lobe to the parietal lobes, connecting with brain areas that identify the location and motion of an object (where)

24

Perceptual Organization

Simplicity Closure Continuity Similarity Proximity Common Fate

25

Simplicity

the visual system tends to select the simplest or most likely interpretation

26

Closure

we tend to fill in missing elements of a visual scene, allowing us to perceive edges taht are separated a=by gaps as complete objects

27

Continuity

edges or contours that have the same orientation have what the Gestaltists called "good continuation" and we tend to group them together perceptually

28

Similarity

regions that are similar in color, lightness, shape, or texture are perceived as belonging to the same object

29

Proximity

objects that are close together tend to be grouped together

30

Common Fate

Elements of a visual image that move together are perceived as aprts of a single moving object

31

Monocular Depth Cues

aspects of a scene that yield info about depth when viewed with only one eye

32

Linear Perspective

parallel lines seem to converge as they recede into the distance

33

Texture Gradient

viewing a more or less uniformly patterned surface because the size of the patterned elements, as well as the distance between them, grows smaller as the surface recedes from the observer

34

Interpostion

partly blocked objects, you can infer taht the blocking object is closer than the partly blocked object but you cannot tell how far apart they are

35

Relative height in the image

objects that are cloer to you are lower in your field of vision, while faraway objects are higher

36

Binocular Disparity

the difference in the retinal images of the two eyes that provides info about depth

37

Motion-Based

motion parallax: a depth cue based on the movement of the head over time

38

The Ear

The outer ear collects sound waves and funnels them toward teh middle ear, which transmits the vibrations to the inner ear, embedded in teh skull, where they are transduced into neural impulses

39

Outer ear

called pinna, includes eardrum

40

Middle ear

tiny "air filled" chamber, behind the eardrum, contain the ossicles (hammer, anvil, stirrup)

41

Cochlea

a fluid filled tube that is the organ of auditory transduction

42

Basilar Membrane

a structure in the inner ear that undulates when vibrations from the ossicles reach the cochlear fluid

43

Hair Cells

Specialized auditory receptor neurons embedded in the basilar membrane

44

Autonomic

Controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands Sympathetic- Arousal Parasympathetic- calming

45

Somatic

controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles