PSY 101 Exam 150 cards

Tagged as: psychology, education, nursing, fitness, biology, medical, medicine, pharmacology

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1

Definition of Psychology

The study of behavior and experience

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Free Will

There is no determined way

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Determinism

actions are already determined

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Dualism

The mind and the brain are separate but the mind controls the brain and through it, the rest of the body.

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Monim

conscious experience is generated by the brain

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Phineas Gage

Had a metal rod go through his brain. Showed which part of the brain controls emotions.

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Nature vs. Nurture

How do differences in behavior relate to differences in heredity and enviornment.

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Degrees needed for psychology

Masters, or PHD/Psy. D

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3 main areas of practiceps

Teaching and research, service providers to individuals, and service providers to organizations

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Categories of research

biological psychology or neuroscience, evolutionary psychology, learning and motivation, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, social psychology

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Service Providers to Individuals

clinical psychologists psychiatric nurses psychiatrists psychiatric and clinical social workers psychoanalysts forensic psychologists

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Service Providers to Organizations

industrial/Organizational psychologists ergonomist human factors specialist school psychologist

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William Wundt

First psychological lab in Germany and began Structuralism

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Structuralism

analysis of the basic components of the mind

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Introspection

subjective observation of own experience (William Wundt)

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William James

Wrote The Principles of Psychology, and began Functionalism

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Functionalism

the study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment

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Charles Darwin

Natural Selection, Delayed Response problem, and detour problem

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Natural Selection

variations are selected that best allow an organism to survive and reproduce

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John B. Watson

Behaviorism

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Behaviorism,

the study of observable, measurable behaviors

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Sigmund Freud

Psychoanalytic Theory, proposed the exsistence of an "unconcious mind" rooted in our animal origins, (brings to mind unconscious thoughts)

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Maslow and Freud

both though goal was to find out our full potential as human beings

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Cognitive Psychology

study of mental processes

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Miller

identified capacity for memory (7 bits + or - 2)

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Cognitive neuroscience

the link between cognitive processes and brain capacity

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Karl Lashley

looking for part of brain that was responsible for memory; no single place for memory

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Cultural Psychology

how cultures reflect and shape the psychology processes of their members - Absolutists/relavists

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Empiricism

accurate knowledge of the world requires observation; determining whether something ocurred or not

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Theory

a comprehensive explanation of observable events and conditions

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Falsifiability

can you demonstrate that a theory is true or not

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Parsimony

the simplest possible explanation s probably the right one, the simpler the idea, the better

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Hypothesis

testable prediction

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Operational definition

defines the property to be measured in concrete terms -Defining -Detecting

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Validity

characteristic of an observation that allows one to draw accurate inferences from it

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Construct Validity

makes some sense and is accurate

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Predictive Validity

you should be able to predict that there is also brain activity for happiness

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Reliablity

should be a reliable finding

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Representive Sample

representing a group of what you are asking (mean age)

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Random Sample

LIke picking every 5th person, equal chance of being selected

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Cross-cultural sample

cultural identifiers

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Experimenter Bias

unintentional distortion of procedures/results based on expectations

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Blind observers

one group is controlled the other is not

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Placebo control

treatment that makes it difficult for subjects (single blind) or subjects and experimenters (double blind) to know who has received treatment and who hasn't

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Observational Research Design

Naturalistic Observation Case Study Survey

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Naturalistic Observation

carefule monitoring and examination of what subjects do under natural circumstances

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Case Study

a thorough observation of a single individual

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Survey

study of beliefs, attitudes or behaviors based on responses to specific questions

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Correlation

is a measure of the relationship between two variables *correlation coefficient: -1.00 to +1.00