Pathophysiology Exam34 cards

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What is Primary prevention?

Removing risk factors so disease does not occur. Preventable.


What is Secondary prevention?

Detecting disease while its still curable- early detection and start having the symptoms.


What is Tertiary prevention?

Preventing further deterioration or reducing complications of disease. (Having the actual disease).


Define morbidity.

Describes the effects of an illness on a person's life.


Define mortality.

Death producing characteristics of a disease.


Define pathogenenesis.

How the disease process evolves.


What is atrophy?

Decrease or shrinkage in cell size: can be decrease in individual cell size or decrease in numbers.


what is the pathophysiology (body's response to disease) in frostbite?

Increases blood viscosity (blood gets thicker) vasoconstriction (closing up of the blood vessels)decreased blood flow, may lead to hypoxia (inadequate of oxygen in blood), ice crystal formation/due to stasis of blood. Tissue swelling.


Define karyotype.

The chromosomes of the cell, usually displayed as a systematized arrangement of chromosome pairs in descending order of size.


Characterisitics of Single Gene Disorder. (1 out of 2)

One of the genes got affected. Caused by a single defective or mutant genes. May be present on an autosome or the X chromosome. May affect one member or both of an autosomal gene pair.


Characterisitics of Single Gene Disorder. (2 out of 2)

Defects follow the Mendelian patterns of inheritance. It has the parents pass of hereditary characeteristics to their offspring. This pattern underlines much of genetics.


Characteristics of Multifactorial gene disorder.

Caused by multiple genes and the environment factors. (The exact # of genes is not known). Traits do not follow a clear-cut pattern of inheritance. (Diorders can be expressed during fetal life and be present at birth or expressed later in life).


What are some examples of Multifactoral gene disorder?

Cleft lip or palate Clubfoot Congenital dislocation of the hip Congenital heart disease Urinary tract malformation


Down Syndrome

Three sets of chromosomes on gene number 21. Down Syndrome increase with maternal age. Physical features: Growth failure, flat face with small nose/square head, slanting of eye, malformed ears and long tongue.


Down Syndrome Complications

Congenital heart disease Intestinal malformations Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)


Turner Syndrome

An absence of part or all of the X chromosome.


Turner Syndrome:Signs and Symptoms

Small Stature No menstruation Nosigns of secondary characteristics-no hair, breasts. Congenital heart defects


Klinefelter Syndrome

The presence of one or more extra X chromosome- affecting males. For a male the sex chromosome will look like this:XXY Many men live thier lives with an extra X chromosome have never had any signs or symptoms.


Klinefelter Syndrome: Signs and Symptoms

Enlarged breasts Sparse facial and body hair Small testes Inability to produce sperm


Klinefelter Syndrome: Treatments

Physical Therapy Infant stimulation program Speech therapy Androgen therapy


Phenylketouria (PKU) (1 out of 2)

A rare metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of the liver enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase.


Phenylketouria (PKU) (2 out of 2)

If untreated can cause mental retardation, microcephaly, dealyed speech and ither signs neurological developmental. It's important to screen newborns at least 12 hours after birth to ensure accuracy. if an infant has PKU a diet that restricts pheny


Tay Sachs Disease

A variant of a class of lysosomal storage diseases, known as gangliosidoses. Ganglioside in the membranes of the nervous tissue is deposited in neurons of the central nervous system and retina bc of a failure of lysosomal degradation. No cure for t


Benign Tumors

When differentiated "working" cells mutate, they form differentuated "working" tumor. Stays put in one area. Contain cells that look like normal tissue cells Usually have a capsule around and do not invade neighboring tissues, BUT they can damage


Malignant Tumors

When undifferentiated, rapidly dividing cells mutate, they form rapidly dividing tumors. It spreads all over. Contain cells that do not look like normal adult cells Do not perform the normal functions of the organ Can compress and/or destroy th


Characteristics of cancer cells (1 out of 3)

Two main features: Abnormal and rapid proliferation (growth) Loss of differentiation- do not exhibit normal features.


Characteristics of cancer cells (2 out of 3)

Genetic instability-hallmark of cancer Growth factor independence-does not need growth to survive Cell density dependent inhibition-continues to grow no matter what tissue it boards Cell cohesiveness and adhesion- the lack of cancer sticking toget


Characteristics of cancer cells (3 out of 3)

Anchorage dependence-does not need a cell to attach or grow Cell to cell communication-faulty communication between cells Life span- unlimited life span Productions of enzymes, hormones, and other substances like normal cells Cyoskeletal changes-


What makes normal cells grow?

The Cell Cycle: Normally, the # of cells produced= the # of cells that die. The total # of cells in the body remains constant=homeostasis. Cells divide only when they are told do so by growth factors. These cause stable cells to enter the cell cy



An abnormally low number of circulating red blood cells (RBC) or level of hemoglobin or both.


What are the causes of anemia? (1 out of 2)

Blood Loss- depends on the rate of hemorrhage and whether the blood loss is internal or external. Rapid blood loss- the circulatory system shuts down. Slow blood loss- the body may loose 50% before signd and symptoms show.


What are the causes of anemia? (2 out of 2)

Hemolysis-break up of RBC. Deficient RBC production due to lack of nutritional elements or bone marrow failure. Impaired RBC production-kidney failure and cancer


Dietary inventions to correct iron deficiency anemia and vitamin B12 deficiency.

Meat is one of the priamry dietary ways we get our iron level. Also green leafy vegetables and lentils. Vitamin B12 is essential for DNA synthesis and nuclear maturation which helps w/red cell maturation and division. Dietary deficiency is rare.


Pernicious anemia- cause

Inability to absorb vitamin B12 due to the stomach not producing sufficient intrinsic factor.