Psyc 3083 FINAL100 cards
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Behavior therapy: Watson’s Extreme Environmentalism “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own special world to bring them up in, and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to be any type of specialist I might select - doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, beggar-man...
Defining Learning, Behaviorism & Conditioning -Learning: A relatively permanent change in __ due to: -Behaviorism: Research on __ has been influenced by this approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of __ and the role of __ as a: -Conditioning: the __ between:
-Learning: A __ due to: Behaviorism: --this approach to psychology has influenced: --this approach to psychology emphasizes the study of __ as a determinant of behavior. -association b/t environmental stimuli & responses to the organism's response to the stimuli
-2 Types of Conditioning: -classical conditioning: What are learned? -operant conditioning: What are learned?
Classical Conditioning -The process by which a __ acquires the capacity to: -The process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through: -Ex:
Classical Conditioning: New Reflexes from Old -Unconditioned= -Unconditioned stimulus (US): Stimulus that elicits: -Unconditioned response (UR): Response that is: -A neutral stimulus is then:
Classical Conditioning: New Reflexes from Old -Conditioned stimulus (CS): An __ that comes to elicit a __ response after being: Conditioned response (CR): -A response that is elicited by the: -Occurs after: -Is usually similar to the:
Principles of Classical Conditioning: Higher-order conditioning -A form of learning in which a __ stimulus can do what? -This previously neutral stimulus can reinforce a second previously neutral stimulus because: -Ex:
Principles of Classical Conditioning: Stimulus generalization: -stimuli elicits similar response to a __ because: Stimulus discrimination: --learn to inhibit __ to:
Principles of Classical Conditioning Response generalization: -emit range of __ responses to: Extinction: --a non-reinforced response results in: --In classical conditioning, extinction occurs when:
Principles of Classical Conditioning Habituation: -repeated exposure results in; usually it is an __ that decreases vs. extinction. Spontaneous recovery: --After a period of time has elapsed following extinction, there may be: – (indicating that the organism has not:)
Principles of Classical Conditioning Resistance to extinction: -The longer the __, the more powerful the learning -The longer the resistance to extinction, the:
Learning to Fear -We can learn fear through: -who conditioned __ to be afraid of white rats? They did this by: -Within days, Albert was not only afraid of the rats, his fear had:
Classical conditioning in forensics Man claimed that he lost tone perception in an industrial accident and he sued the company for a large sum of money. Clever because he did not claim he lost hearing. -if you did lose tone perception, you should have a flat GSR curve
Operant Conditioning -Also called: -The process by which a response becomes more or less likely to occur depending on: -Thorndike’s Law of Effect: -__ vs. __ -Behavior that is followed by a satisfying state of affairs is likely to be repeated. This is known as:
-Reinforcement: -__ reinforcers are inherently reinforcing and typically satisfy a physiological need. -__ reinforcers are stimuli that have acquired reinforcing properties through associations with other (often primary) reinforcers.
Primary reinforcers: -are: -typically satisfy: Secondary reinforcers: -stimuli that have acquired __ through: --Positive reinforcement: when a __ makes the response more likely to occur --Negative reinforcement: when a response is followed by __ that makes the response more likely to occur
-Punishment: The process by which a stimulus: -Primary punisher: Something that is: (such as:) -Secondary punisher: A stimulus that has acquired punishing properties through:
Use of punishment in medicine -Infant with uncontrollable vomiting. Physicians unable to control with medications. Psychologist used punishment to treat the vomiting.
Problems with punishment -People often administer punishment how? -The recipient responds with: -The __ is often temporary -Most misbehavior is hard to:. -Punishment conveys: -An action intended to punish may instead be: -The __ may be copied!
Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous: -A particular response is: -Use when establishing: Intermittent (Partial): -A particular response is: -Fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, fixed interval, and variable-interval. -__ maintains behavior at the highest levels
Shaping -To teach complex behaviors, may need to reinforce: -Break responses down into: -Goal is to make __ easy with few failures. Ex:, training social skills, reducing shyness, teaching children motor skills.
Behavior Management -The application of __ techniques The application of operant conditioning techniques to ---teach: ---reduce or eliminate: -Begin with a thorough: -“functional behavioral assessment” – which is an analysis of?
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Reinforcers Extrinsic reinforcers: -Reinforcers that are __ to the activity being reinforced (Ex:) Intrinsic reinforcers: -Reinforcers that are __ to the activity being reinforced (Ex:)
Social Learning Social cognitive theory-- emphasizes that behavior is learned and maintained through: -_ & _ of others, -__ consequences, -__ processes such as:
Social Learning Observational learning: -involves learning new responses by __ rather than __ -__ performs the behavior -__ learns the behavior
Behavioral Therapies -Acquire phobias via: -Example: -Now pt. avoids cars, so the pt. never gets a chance to have fear extinguished – so the fear is:
Behavioral Therapies -Not everyone is equally: -Depends on: -__ can reduce occurrence of phobias and other neurotic reactions. -Behavior therapists (AABT) rely heavily on the science of __ and are concerned with the individual’s: -BT’s argue that __ is important to the therapeutic relationship
-Exposure therapy use the principles of: (3) Systematic desensitization: ---originally called: ---is a __ treatment ---is a behavioral treatment for: ---is a behavioral treatment for phobias, fears, and anxieties based on:
Exposure Therapies Systematic Desensitization: -was developed by: -Based on __ principles. -Begins with: -Begins with training relaxation & cognitive skills that: -May involve: -__ are discussed -The basic idea is that:
Exposure Therapies -Pt. & therapist create a: -Pt. trained in __, and learns: Then exposed to the next level in the hierarchy, which may be holding a model plane, and practices relaxation and rational thinking. Eventually gets on plane- in vivo exposure (vs. in vitro = imaginal).
Exposure Therapies Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): -was developed by Francine Shapiro to deal: -Shapiro argued that EMDR (eye movements left and right while working on issues helps to: -Others argue that EMDR is __ therapy. -As effective as __ for PTSD in some studies
Exposure Therapies -Flooding: -Punishment or aversion therapy: -Covert sensitization: __ punishment - probably very powerful in real life!
Operant Approaches to Skills Training -The idea is that problems and disorders are based on a lack of: -Social skills problems are either: -For a shy person, make a __ and train them to: -Social skills training uses:
Behavioral Management/Token Economies -Can be used to address: -Conduct a __ analysis: -Conduct a functional behavioral analysis to determine: -Useful for training:
-Behavior therapy: is about 180 degrees different from __ approaches -In psychoanalysis and psychodynamic approaches there’s always: -Behavior therapy doesn’t care what you’re thinking, there is no symbolic meaning, it’s all about: -Behavior therapy: -is the most __ form of therapy & backed with: -Most useful for:
-Classical conditioning= behaviors are: -Operant conditioning is also called instrumental conditioning because: -Operant/instrumental conditioning= behaviors are:
Conditioned stimulus (bell) -is not as strong as the: -can lead to extinction of the response after a while of being: --Extinction is NOT unlearning of the behavior, but rather is __ of the behavior
-Reinforcer= is the: -Reinforcement= is the: -The only way you know if it’s positive/negative/or punishment:
-Punishment: stimulus that: -Positive punisher: when __ occurs after the behavior, which decreases the frequency of the undesired behavior
What kind of schedule are casinos on? (You’re never sure exactly when the reward is coming, but you know it’s coming soon. -Variable-ratio schedule (partial reinforcement schedule) produces the strongest: -__ is what you begin a behavior management program/plan with. It SHOULD/WILL work if:
Precursor to modern CBT is: Bandura and social learning theory: Learn how & through what? Argued that many behaviors are __ specific and based on: *-Self-efficacy: An individual’s belief in: *-Self-efficacy predicts ability to:.
CBT *Low self-efficacy is associated with: -Negative what? --A focus on: -Doing what prematurely? --4 letter acrononym -__ disorders
CBT -Psychotherapy is what kind of process? -Therapy uses: -The focus of therapy is on what time period? -Change can occur without dealing directly with: -One major task is to identify:
-CBT assumes that there is a: -CBT assumes that there is a belief hierarchy, which starts with: -CBT assumes that there is a belief hierarchy, which starts with core beliefs or assumptions that are the __ cognitions -belief hierarchy starts with core beliefs or assumptions, to __, which are:
*CBT assumes that there is a belief hierarchy, which starts with core beliefs or assumptions that are the most stable and least accessible cognitions, to voluntary thoughts, which are the least stable but most accessible cognitions -Levels of Thought: (4)
Early in treatment CBT therapists may rely more on __ techniques, while later in treatment the focus shifts more to __ techniques CBT often creates homework assignments called “__,” in which patients can:
Structure of a typical CBT session: -__ check -Setting the: -__ from last session -Work on __– the process often involves: -__ assignment – use__– or try: -__ & __ from patient
CBT & Socratic Questioning -What evidence do you have to: -What evidence do you have to: -What would happen next (and next)? -What would your (spouse/friend) say in about this situation? -What would you say to a friend in this situation? -How could you look at this situation so you would feel less depressed? Ho
CBT -__ leads to __, which leads to: -People may alter their thinking/feelings/ behaviors by dealing with __ processes. -__ can create emotional and behavioral problems -Early experiences can create emotional and behavioral problems by: -Many of these dysfunctional or irrational cognitions are:
CBT -For Beck, the goal is to identify: -Ellis called them __ cognitions -For really stuck people, CBT uses: (2) -Behavioral activation – have the patient: -Cognitive rehearsal- __ and __ all the needed:
CBT -Example of role of assumptions & cognitions: Beck and the Cognitive Triad: 1. Negative: 2. Negative: 3. Pessimistic:
**Cognitive errors: -Magnify __ and minimize: -Over __ -Make __ attributions about:. -__ (black and white world)/__ -__ -__
**Cognitive Distortions: -Emotional Reasoning: --Fortune Telling: -Labeling: --Mental Filter - We all have mental filters, but this distortion refers to specific situations where we:
**Cognitive Distortions: -Believing that your negative feelings reflect the way a situation really is. --Anticipating events will turn out badly -One behavior defines the whole person --ignore either positive or negatives to one issue.
**Cognitive Distortions: -Believing that we can know what a person thinks solely from their behaviors. --Assuming that a person is at fault for some negative event. -Statements that begin with "Shoulds" or "Musts" (are often punishing demands we make on ourselves)
-CBT believes that __ may be easier to change -hot cognitions are feelings that occur in the presence of: Some attempts have been made to address personality disorders, but not very successfully.
-Ellis developed __ therapy, now called: -Musturbatory thinking: __ cause pathology -There __ types of irrational beliefs, which we all have to some degree, are more common and extensive among disturbed individuals
CBT: Albert Ellis 3 types of irrational beliefs, which we all have to some degree, are more common and extensive among disturbed individuals: -I must be __ and I must win __. I am a rotten person when I don’t: -Others must treat me: -I need and must have__. I can’t deal with __. The world is rotten when__.
CBT: Albert Ellis -Rational emotive behavior therapy challenges: -Like Beck’s CBT, it tends to be: -Pt’s often need to behaviorally try out their: -Ellis believes that irrational beliefs lead to __ that lead to __ -__ = __ = __
-CBT: Beck identified 3 stages of therapy: Initial stage: -Build: -educate patient about relationship between: -define: -giving some __ thru: -Therapist is __ in this stage.
-CBT: Beck identified 3 stages of therapy Middle stage: -Getting patient to identify and challenge: -__ can be examined. -Patient learns to assume responsibility for:
-CBT: Beck identified 3 stages of therapy Later stage: -Client is able to use cognitive therapy to: -Learns to deal with: -__ occurs at this stage (may include __)
CBT: The Thought Record -Helps patients become aware of: -Helps patients see the situations in which __ occurs -Helps patients see the relationships among:
CBT: Thought Record Explores: -The __ -The __ -__ thoughts -Evidence supporting: -Evidence that contradicts: -__ or __ thought -Possible __ or __
Importance of Goals Few patients know exactly what they want to get out of counseling – “feel better” or “be more productive” or “have fewer problems” may be all they can describe. -Goals help measure __ and define __. -__ goals provide smaller, reasonable change that can be monitored easily
-CBT has been criticized for not being particularly sensitive to __ issues, since CBT tends to focus on a single individual’s thoughts and feelings, and not the context in which these occur In doing couples work, __ distinguished the need to distinguish __ from __
In doing couples work, Ellis distinguished the need to distinguish dissatisfaction from disturbance. -Dissatisfaction comes when either or both parties are not: -Dissatisfied couples can __ if given the tools to do so -Disturbance involves: -“Disturbed” couples need to have intensive __ to identify:
-CBT is generally equivalent in effectiveness to psychotropic medications for: -__ + __ is superior to either -CBT is effective with:
-CBT is probably __ of therapeutic models used. -Self-efficacy: -Your self-efficacy will increase if you: -If you talk irrationally to yourself, you will begin to: -__ is the most common form of thinking error – the way ppl talk to themselves that gets them in trouble
CBT -things that you engage in, thoughts you have that happen so quickly, you don’t even realize you have them: -Core belief example:
Essence of CBT: -__ leads to __, which lead to __ -A person’s core beliefs are their__, which predisposes them to: -CBT says we have these “levels of thought”, starting with __ at the bottom, then __, then __, then __
-__ are signs of rigid thinking. Ex: kid who said “I SHOULD be in law school by now.” He has this rigid internal schedule that he hasn’t met and it’s driving him crazy -__ ppl have strong feelings in the face of strong functional beliefs and CBT thinks when you have these, they are easy to change.
-An important part of CBT is: -__ doesn’t set goals -CBT doesn’t really focus on: -Ellis points out that if you’re working with couples or families, you have to separate what may be __, with __ problems
-__ statistical technique in which you look at a wide variety of measure and outcomes, it standardizes this so you can compare one outcome with another, and see how affective they are. It looks at __ -Meds help __ functions of depression, that’s why combining meds and CBT works best for depression
Existential Counseling -Existential psychotherapy is a powerful approach to therapy that takes seriously the: -It is a (potentially) optimistic approach in that it embraces __, while remaining realistic in: -Falls in the tradition of the __ therapies and has much in common with __ approaches to psychotherapy.
-Existential psychotherapy acknowledges the critical role of “__” in how people determine: -This aloneness can lead to feelings of __, which can only be overcome by: -In making choices, we do what concering the results? -Therapists helps patients who are overwhelmed find:
-Existential therapy is derived from: -phenomenology: the study of: -existential philosophy: study of: -These approaches reject any attempts to impose: -These approaches are “humanistic” in that they encourage:
-The Danish Philosopher, who coined the term “Existentialism”: -Kierkegaard argued that people aspire to be like __ but are confronted with: -Kierkegaard was opposed to reliance on __ and the so-called __ -Such reliance on religious dogma and the so-called 'objectivity' of science allows one to avoid:
The father of American Existential Psychotherapy is: Rollo May was heavily influenced by the writings of: -In developing an existential approach to therapy, Rollo May was also influenced by many:
Existential Counseling -This reliance (on external guides) reflects an absence of: -At the heart of this struggle is the search for: -The task is to find meaning given that: -__ was often alone and much ridiculed during his life.
-Felt naïve acceptance of theistic beliefs impairs ability to rationally cope with mortal existence: -Nietzsche wanted people to do what concerning values? -Nietzsche took philosophy of life a step further. His starting point was the notion that: Nietzsche felt that a naïve acceptance of theistic beliefs impairs:
-Nietzsche wanted people to discover __ and not conform just for: -Existential interpretation is different from psychoanalytic interpretation, which looks for: -Existential interpretation seeks to understand how the person:
-What Nietzsche meant was that it is up to each person to: -This search involves ignoring __ and living by: -Nietzsche also emphasized the (existential) themes of:
-__ was a survivor of the concentration camp Auschwitz. His parents and several other family members died in the concentration camps. -Frankl wrote: One can discover the meaning in life in three different ways 1. by creating __ or doing __ 2. by experiencing __or encountering __ 3. by the attitude we take toward:
-Victor Frankl studied with __ in Vienna. -Became a major: -Had a pretty miserable life – concentration camp, two failed marriages, contracted tuberculosis, but never developed: -Victor Frankl: the greatest challenge is to:
**-Yalom, who was influenced heavily by __, described 4 major categories of: -Yalom's 4 existential realities are: Some existential therapists believe there are no “ultimate” answers to these issues, while some are more positive and optimistic.
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