Psyc 3083 FINAL100 cards

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Defining Learning, Behaviorism & Conditioning -Learning: A relatively permanent change in __ due to: -Behaviorism: Research on __ has been influenced by this approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of __ and the role of __ as a: -Conditioning: the __ between:

-behavior (or behavior potential) due to experience. -learning; -observable behavior; -the environment as a determinant of behavior. -association between environmental stimuli and responses to the organism's response to the stimuli

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-Learning: A __ due to: Behaviorism: --this approach to psychology has influenced: --this approach to psychology emphasizes the study of __ as a determinant of behavior. -association b/t environmental stimuli & responses to the organism's response to the stimuli

-Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavior potential) due to experience. --Research on learning --observable behavior and the role of the environment as a as a determinant of behavior -conditioning

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-2 Types of Conditioning: -classical conditioning: What are learned? -operant conditioning: What are learned?

-classical & operant -Primitive, reflexive responses are learned “elicited” -Voluntary behaviors are learned “emitted"

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Classical Conditioning -The process by which a __ acquires the capacity to: -The process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through: -Ex:

-previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response -association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related response. -Palov & his damn dogs


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Classical Conditioning: New Reflexes from Old -Conditioned stimulus (CS): An __ that comes to elicit a __ response after being: Conditioned response (CR): -A response that is elicited by the: -Occurs after: -Is usually similar to the:

-initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus. Conditioned response (CR): -A response that is elicited by the conditioned stimulus. -the CS is associated with the US -unconditioned response

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-Principles of Classical Conditioning (8)

-Higher-order conditioning -Stimulus generalization -Stimulus discrimination -Response generalization -Extinction -Habituation -Spontaneous recovery -Resistance to extinction

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Principles of Classical Conditioning: Higher-order conditioning -A form of learning in which a __ stimulus can do what? -This previously neutral stimulus can reinforce a second previously neutral stimulus because: -Ex:

-previously neutral stimulus can reinforce a second previously neutral stimulus. -it has reinforcing qualities -Paper money is previously neutral, but made meaningful through association with primary reinforcers. A check is highly reinforcing because of its association with paper money.

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Principles of Classical Conditioning: Stimulus generalization: -stimuli elicits similar response to a __ because: Stimulus discrimination: --learn to inhibit __ to:

-conditioned stimuli because it's similar to it: (Child learns to respect a police officer in uniform; now respects fireman in uniform) --responses to similar stimuli. (A dog will come to his owner’s whistle but not to a similar whistle of a neighbor)

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Principles of Classical Conditioning Response generalization: -emit range of __ responses to: Extinction: --a non-reinforced response results in: --In classical conditioning, extinction occurs when:

-similar responses to one stimulus (at a party, we emit party behaviors) --the weakening & eventual disappearance of the response. --the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus.

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Principles of Classical Conditioning Habituation: -repeated exposure results in; usually it is an __ that decreases vs. extinction. Spontaneous recovery: --After a period of time has elapsed following extinction, there may be: – (indicating that the organism has not:)

-no response; usually it is an orienting response w/o reinforcement that decreases vs. extinction. --a burst of responses of the old behavior – (ndicating that the organism has not forgotten or unlearned the behavior)


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Learning to Fear -We can learn fear through: -who conditioned __ to be afraid of white rats? They did this by: -Within days, Albert was not only afraid of the rats, his fear had:

-association. -Watson and Raynor conditioned “Little Albert” t -pairing the neutral stimulus (rats) with a unconditioned stimulus (loud noise). -generalized to other furry objects.

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Unlearning Fear: Counterconditioning -The process of pairing a conditioned stimulus with:

-a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned response. -A child’s fear of rabbits was removed by pairing the stimulus that elicited fear with a stimulus that elicited happiness (cookies and milk)

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Classical conditioning in forensics Man claimed that he lost tone perception in an industrial accident and he sued the company for a large sum of money. Clever because he did not claim he lost hearing. -if you did lose tone perception, you should have a flat GSR curve

Insurance company hired a psychologist who classically conditioned a Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) to middle C on the piano. Each time he played middle C to the patient, a slight electric current was applied to the skin = GSR. -he had an inverted V on the GSR curve

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Operant Conditioning -Also called: -The process by which a response becomes more or less likely to occur depending on: -Thorndike’s Law of Effect: -__ vs. __ -Behavior that is followed by a satisfying state of affairs is likely to be repeated. This is known as:

-instrumental learning -its consequences. -Behavior that is followed by a satisfying state of affairs is likely to be repeated -Reinforcement vs. Punishment -Thorndike’s Law of Effect



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Primary reinforcers: -are: -typically satisfy: Secondary reinforcers: -stimuli that have acquired __ through: --Positive reinforcement: when a __ makes the response more likely to occur --Negative reinforcement: when a response is followed by __ that makes the response more likely to occur

-are inherently reinforcing -a physiological need. Secondary reinforcers -reinforcing properties through associations with other (often primary) reinforcers. --consequence that follows a response --the avoidance or removal of a stimulus that makes the response more likely to occur

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-Punishment: The process by which a stimulus: -Primary punisher: Something that is: (such as:) -Secondary punisher: A stimulus that has acquired punishing properties through:

-weakens or reduces the probability of the response that it follows. -inherently punishing (such as electric shock) -an association with other punishers (giving birth was painful; seeing a pregnant woman causes emotional distress)

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Types of Punishers -Positive punisher: -Negative punisher:

-When something unpleasant occurs after a behavior. -When something pleasant is removed after a behavior

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Use of punishment in medicine -Infant with uncontrollable vomiting. Physicians unable to control with medications. Psychologist used punishment to treat the vomiting.

-Each time the infant began vomiting, the psychologist applied a shock to the infants leg to punish the vomiting, and eventually the vomiting stopped.

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Problems with punishment -People often administer punishment how? -The recipient responds with: -The __ is often temporary -Most misbehavior is hard to:. -Punishment conveys: -An action intended to punish may instead be: -The __ may be copied!

-inappropriately (e.g., for their convenience, too much, too little, too inconsistently) -anxiety, fear, or rage. -effectiveness -punish immediately. -little information. -reinforcing (sending a child home from school) -behavior of the punisher

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Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous: -A particular response is: -Use when establishing: Intermittent (Partial): -A particular response is: -Fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, fixed interval, and variable-interval. -__ maintains behavior at the highest levels

-always reinforced. -a new behavior Intermittent (Partial): -sometimes but not always reinforced. -Fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, fixed interval, and variable-interval. -variable-ratio

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Shaping -To teach complex behaviors, may need to reinforce: -Break responses down into: -Goal is to make __ easy with few failures. Ex:, training social skills, reducing shyness, teaching children motor skills.

-successive approximations of a desired response. -components. -acquisition of each step easy with few failures. For example, training social skills, reducing shyness, teaching children motor skills.

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Behavior Management -The application of __ techniques The application of operant conditioning techniques to ---teach: ---reduce or eliminate: -Begin with a thorough: -“functional behavioral assessment” – which is an analysis of?

-operant conditioning techniques ---new responses ---maladaptive or problematic behavior -“functional behavioral assessment” -the contingencies maintaining the behavior.

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Extrinsic and Intrinsic Reinforcers Extrinsic reinforcers: -Reinforcers that are __ to the activity being reinforced (Ex:) Intrinsic reinforcers: -Reinforcers that are __ to the activity being reinforced (Ex:)

Extrinsic reinforcers: -not inherently related to the activity being reinforced (Others admire one’s loss of weight) Intrinsic reinforcers: -inherently related to the activity being reinforced. (Feeling stronger and looking better after exercising)

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Social Learning Social cognitive theory-- emphasizes that behavior is learned and maintained through: -_ & _ of others, -__ consequences, -__ processes such as:

Social cognitive theory-- emphasizes that behavior is learned and maintained through: -observation and imitation of others -positive consequences, -cognitive processes such as plans, expectations, and beliefs.

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Social Learning Observational learning: -involves learning new responses by __ rather than __ -__ performs the behavior -__ learns the behavior

-observing the behavior of “model” rather than through direct experience. -Model -Observer

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Behavioral Therapies -Acquire phobias via: -Example: -Now pt. avoids cars, so the pt. never gets a chance to have fear extinguished – so the fear is:

-classical conditioning -Pt. has a car accident that produces a phobia of cars. The pt. has learned to pair the pain associated with injuries obtained in a car accident with cars and now fears cars. The fear is classically conditioned. -negatively reinforced!

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Behavioral Therapies -Not everyone is equally: -Depends on: -__ can reduce occurrence of phobias and other neurotic reactions. -Behavior therapists (AABT) rely heavily on the science of __ and are concerned with the individual’s: -BT’s argue that __ is important to the therapeutic relationship

-conditionable! -CNS, genetics, learning history, expectations, and preparedness. -Stress inoculation -learning theory and are concerned with the individual’s learning history. -trust and understanding

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-Exposure therapy use the principles of: (3) Systematic desensitization: ---originally called: ---is a __ treatment ---is a behavioral treatment for: ---is a behavioral treatment for phobias, fears, and anxieties based on:

-Extinction -Prevention of escape or avoidance -Systematic desensitization ---reciprocal inhibition ---behavioral treatment ---for phobias, fears, and anxieties ---based on extinction and counter-conditioning.

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Exposure Therapies Systematic Desensitization: -was developed by: -Based on __ principles. -Begins with: -Begins with training relaxation & cognitive skills that: -May involve: -__ are discussed -The basic idea is that:

-Joseph Wolpe, MD. -classical and operant conditioning principles. -training relaxation & cognitive skills -counter fear & anxiety responses. -meditation or progressive relaxation & cognitive reframing/reappraisal. -Irrational fears/consequences -one cannot be both fearful and relaxed at the same time.

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Exposure Therapies -Pt. & therapist create a: -Pt. trained in __, and learns: Then exposed to the next level in the hierarchy, which may be holding a model plane, and practices relaxation and rational thinking. Eventually gets on plane- in vivo exposure (vs. in vitro = imaginal).

-hierarchy of fears (regarding planes). Lowest fear = 1 (picture of a plane); highest fear = 10 (riding on a plane) -progressive or deep relaxation techniques, and learns appropriate self-talk. (Pt. starts holding a picture of a plane, while relaxing and talking rationally about planes)


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Exposure Therapies -Flooding: -Punishment or aversion therapy: -Covert sensitization: __ punishment - probably very powerful in real life!

-massive exposure to fear stimulus with no escape- eventually fears extinguish. (Wolpe (1973) locked girl in a car, drove her around, eventually her fears extinguished (no negative reinforcement could occur), she lost her phobia of cars) -Force someone to smoke until he gets sick. -imagined punishment

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Operant Approaches to Skills Training -The idea is that problems and disorders are based on a lack of: -Social skills problems are either: -For a shy person, make a __ and train them to: -Social skills training uses:

-trainable skills. -learned abnormal behaviors or represent deficits. - hierarchy of fearful situations; -begin developing new skills. -shaping, covert practice, feedback, and therapist reward. “Inoculation” against failure.

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Behavioral Management/Token Economies -Can be used to address: -Conduct a __ analysis: -Conduct a functional behavioral analysis to determine: -Useful for training:

-almost any behavioral problem such as stealing, destruction of property, self-injurious behaviors, rumination, feces smearing. -functional behavioral analysis -conditions when the behaviors are most likely to occur and what is the reinforcing contingency -parents, children, husbands, girlfriends, bosses, etc

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Behavioral Management/Token Economies -Useful techniques include: (4)

-Extinction -Time out -Restitution -Response cost

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-Behavior therapy: is about 180 degrees different from __ approaches -In psychoanalysis and psychodynamic approaches there’s always: -Behavior therapy doesn’t care what you’re thinking, there is no symbolic meaning, it’s all about: -Behavior therapy: -is the most __ form of therapy & backed with: -Most useful for:

-psychoanalysis and psychodynamic approaches -always words (what’s said), and then there’s the unspoken stuff. -what’s causing the problem and how can we solve it. -well-grounded form of therapy and backed with most scientific facts. -Most useful for changing discrete behaviors -changing discrete behaviors


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Conditioned stimulus (bell) -is not as strong as the: -can lead to extinction of the response after a while of being: --Extinction is NOT unlearning of the behavior, but rather is __ of the behavior

-unconditioned stimulus (the actual food) -presented without being paired with the unconditioned stimulus (behavior diminishes and stops after a while) --suppression the behavior

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-Reinforcer= is the: -Reinforcement= is the: -The only way you know if it’s positive/negative/or punishment:

-actual material thing -effect -the frequency of the behavior has to either go up or down. (Start with identifying the behavior, then identify whether or not the behavior is increasing or decreasing)

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-Punishment: stimulus that: -Positive punisher: when __ occurs after the behavior, which decreases the frequency of the undesired behavior

-decreases the frequency of a behavior (avoid adjectives such as: bad, unwanted, etc.) -unpleasant


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Precursor to modern CBT is: Bandura and social learning theory: Learn how & through what? Argued that many behaviors are __ specific and based on: *-Self-efficacy: An individual’s belief in: *-Self-efficacy predicts ability to:.

-Bandura and social learning theory -vicariously through observation; --situationally specific and based on expectations. -his or her ability to manage behaviors or situations. -quit smoking.

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CBT *Low self-efficacy is associated with: -Negative what? --A focus on: -Doing what prematurely? --4 letter acrononym -__ disorders

-Negative self-evaluation --failures and problems rather than on successes -Quitting prematurely --SUDS (sudden unexplained death syndrome) -Depression and anxiety disorders

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Meichenbaum -a pioneer of: -__ programs -Focused on: -trained patients how to:

-CBT -Negative self-talk programs for failure -self-talk (behavioral way of saying thinking!). -talk positively and realistically to themselves.

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CBT: General thinking problems -Extreme: -Idealistic:

-Consistently negative, Catastrophic, Unscientific, Pollyannaish -Demanding, Obsessive, Comfort seeking, Overly broad

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CBT -Psychotherapy is what kind of process? -Therapy uses: -The focus of therapy is on what time period? -Change can occur without dealing directly with: -One major task is to identify:

-active, collaborative process -pt’s problem solving skills -The present -the transference -“Automatic Thought” [make them conscious]


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*CBT assumes that there is a belief hierarchy, which starts with core beliefs or assumptions that are the most stable and least accessible cognitions, to voluntary thoughts, which are the least stable but most accessible cognitions -Levels of Thought: (4)

-Core Beliefs – I am not lovable -Assumptions – there is no true justice -Strategies – I need to always be on the alert for injustice -Automatic Thoughts and Images – people are always unfair with me

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Early in treatment CBT therapists may rely more on __ techniques, while later in treatment the focus shifts more to __ techniques CBT often creates homework assignments called “__,” in which patients can:

-behavioral techniques to cognitive techniques - “behavioral experiments,” --test hypotheses. Ex (Katrina): If I tell my mother she can’t call so often, she will stop talking to me.

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Structure of a typical CBT session: -__ check -Setting the: -__ from last session -Work on __– the process often involves: -__ assignment – use__– or try: -__ & __ from patient

-Mood check -Setting the agenda -Bridging from last session -Work on the day’s agenda – the process often involves Socratic dialog – a form of questioning that helps pt’s arrive at their own conclusions -Homework assignment – use thought records – or try an experiment -Summary and feedback

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-Structure of a typical CBT session:

-Mood check -Setting the agenda -Bridging from last session -Work on the day’s agenda – (Socratic dialog)-questioning that helps pt’s arrive at their own conclusions -Homework assignment – use thought records – or try an experiment -Summary and feedback from patient

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CBT & Socratic Questioning -What evidence do you have to: -What evidence do you have to: -What would happen next (and next)? -What would your (spouse/friend) say in about this situation? -What would you say to a friend in this situation? -How could you look at this situation so you would feel less depressed? Ho

-support this belief? -refute it? -What would happen next (and next)? -What would your (spouse/friend) say in about this situation? -What would you say to a friend in this situation? -How could you look at this situation so you would feel less depressed? How does this differ from how you look at it now?

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CBT -__ leads to __, which leads to: -People may alter their thinking/feelings/ behaviors by dealing with __ processes. -__ can create emotional and behavioral problems -Early experiences can create emotional and behavioral problems by: -Many of these dysfunctional or irrational cognitions are:

-Thoughts lead to feelings, which lead to behaviors. -conscious and “semi-conscious” processes. -Early experiences -creating dysfunctional or irrational cognitions. - “automatic.” (Not fully conscious, fast, well practiced)

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**Characteristics of Automatic Thought: -A stream of: -__ and __ -__ -__ -Content unique to:

-A stream of self-talk -Specific and discrete -Telegraphic -Plausible -Content unique to patient and pr

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**Characteristics of Automatic Thought: (5)

-A stream of self-talk -Specific and discrete -Telegraphic -Plausible -Content unique to patient and pr

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CBT -For Beck, the goal is to identify: -Ellis called them __ cognitions -For really stuck people, CBT uses: (2) -Behavioral activation – have the patient: -Cognitive rehearsal- __ and __ all the needed:

-dysfunctional cognitions -irrational cognitions -behavioral activation & cognitive rehearsal. -engage in behaviors to test negative cognitions -think about & plan all the needed steps to attain a goal

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CBT -Example of role of assumptions & cognitions: Beck and the Cognitive Triad: 1. Negative: 2. Negative: 3. Pessimistic:

-Beck and the Cognitive Triad 1. Negative self esteem 2. Negative view of the world 3. Pessimistic view of the future (“I’m no good, the world sucks, and it isn't going to get better.”)


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**Cognitive errors: -Magnify __ and minimize: -Over __ -Make __ attributions about:. -__ (black and white world)/__ -__ -__

-Magnify negative and minimize positive -Over generalize -Make negative, global attributions about the self. (If you fail at one thing- your whole life is a failure) -Polarization (black and white world)/dichotomizing -Personalization -Catastrophizing

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**Cognitive errors: (6)

-Magnify negative and minimize positive -Over generalize -Make negative, global attributions about the self. If you fail at one thing- your whole life is a failure. -Polarization (black and white world)/dichotomizing -Personalization -Catastrophizing

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**Cognitive Distortions: -Emotional Reasoning: --Fortune Telling: -Labeling: --Mental Filter - We all have mental filters, but this distortion refers to specific situations where we:

-Believing that your negative feelings reflect the way a situation really is. --Anticipating events will turn out badly -One behavior defines the whole person --ignore either positive or negatives to one issue.

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**Cognitive Distortions: -Mind Reading: --Personalization: -Should Statements:

-Believing that we can know what a person thinks solely from their behaviors. --Assuming that a person is at fault for some negative event. -Statements that begin with "Shoulds" or "Musts" (are often punishing demands we make on ourselves)

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**Cognitive Distortions: -Believing that your negative feelings reflect the way a situation really is. --Anticipating events will turn out badly -One behavior defines the whole person --ignore either positive or negatives to one issue.

-Emotional Reasoning: --Fortune Telling: -Labeling: --Mental Filter - We all have mental filters, but this distortion refers to specific situations where we:


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CBT: Albert Ellis 3 types of irrational beliefs, which we all have to some degree, are more common and extensive among disturbed individuals: -I must be __ and I must win __. I am a rotten person when I don’t: -Others must treat me: -I need and must have__. I can’t deal with __. The world is rotten when__.

-competent and achieving; --win the approval of important people; --achieve and don’t win the approval of others. -fairly and they are worthless when they don’t. -the things I want. I can’t deal with frustrations. The world is rotten when I don’t get what I want.


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-CBT: Beck identified 3 stages of therapy: Initial stage: -Build: -educate patient about relationship between: -define: -giving some __ thru: -Therapist is __ in this stage.

-Initial stage, Middle stage, Later stage -Build relationship -thoughts and feelings -define problem -initial relief thru problem solving. -active

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-CBT: Beck identified 3 stages of therapy Middle stage: -Getting patient to identify and challenge: -__ can be examined. -Patient learns to assume responsibility for:

-automatic thoughts -Underlying schemas (or core beliefs) -identifying problems and solutions (and homework).

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-CBT: Beck identified 3 stages of therapy Later stage: -Client is able to use cognitive therapy to: -Learns to deal with: -__ occurs at this stage (may include __)

-solve own problems without therapist. -set backs -Inoculation or relapse prevention (may include occasional booster sessions)

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CBT: The Thought Record -Helps patients become aware of: -Helps patients see the situations in which __ occurs -Helps patients see the relationships among:

-how controlled they are by non-conscious thoughts -these unwanted thoughts occur -thoughts, behaviors, and feelings

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CBT: Thought Record Explores: -The __ -The __ -__ thoughts -Evidence supporting: -Evidence that contradicts: -__ or __ thought -Possible __ or __

-The situation -The mood -Automatic thoughts -“hot thought” - “hot thought” -Alternative or balanced thought -mood or behaviors




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-CBT is generally equivalent in effectiveness to psychotropic medications for: -__ + __ is superior to either -CBT is effective with:

-depression, bulimia, and some anxiety disorders -CBT + medication -depression, panic disorder, social phobias, GAD, SUDs, eating disorders, marital problems, OCD, PTSD

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-CBT is probably __ of therapeutic models used. -Self-efficacy: -Your self-efficacy will increase if you: -If you talk irrationally to yourself, you will begin to: -__ is the most common form of thinking error – the way ppl talk to themselves that gets them in trouble

-2/3 -is your belief in yourself (do you believe you can do it) the higher your self-efficacy, the more likely you are to succeed. -Talk positively and realistically to yourself -think and act irrationally -catastrophizing

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CBT -things that you engage in, thoughts you have that happen so quickly, you don’t even realize you have them: -Core belief example:

-Automatic thought -“im not voting, it’s all rigged anyways.” This stems from her core belief that “no one can be trusted” B/c when she was a kid, her father, who she trusted, tricked her by saying that he loved her while he abused her. So this non-conscious notion drove her conscious idea that the election is rigge

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Essence of CBT: -__ leads to __, which lead to __ -A person’s core beliefs are their__, which predisposes them to: -CBT says we have these “levels of thought”, starting with __ at the bottom, then __, then __, then __

thoughts lead to feelings, which lead to behaviors-- omg I could get bit (thought) if I get bit, I could die (feeling of being scared) -model of how they view the world; --see things in a certain way and to respond to ppl/things in certain ways. -core beliefs, assumptions, strategies, automatic thoughts and images




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Existential Counseling -Existential psychotherapy is a powerful approach to therapy that takes seriously the: -It is a (potentially) optimistic approach in that it embraces __, while remaining realistic in: -Falls in the tradition of the __ therapies and has much in common with __ approaches to psychotherapy.

-human condition (aloneness). -human potential (while remaining realistic in its recognition of human limitation). -dynamic therapies; --humanistic, experiential, and relational approaches to psychotherapy.

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-Existential psychotherapy acknowledges the critical role of “__” in how people determine: -This aloneness can lead to feelings of __, which can only be overcome by: -In making choices, we do what concering the results? -Therapists helps patients who are overwhelmed find:

-“aloneness”; --what is meaningful in their lives. -meaninglessness; --making choices and finding values and meanings -we assume full responsibility for the results and blame no one but ourselves if the results are less than what was desired. -meaning in life & better ways to manage their anxieties

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-Existential therapy is derived from: -phenomenology: the study of: -existential philosophy: study of: -These approaches reject any attempts to impose: -These approaches are “humanistic” in that they encourage:

-phenomenology and existential philosophy -conscious experience -find meaning in life -dogmatic beliefs (religious/ psychiatric/ political/ scientific). -self-discovery






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-What Nietzsche meant was that it is up to each person to: -This search involves ignoring __ and living by: -Nietzsche also emphasized the (existential) themes of:

-re-evaluate existence and figure out what is meaningful -contemporary mores and societal constraints and living by one’s free will -freedom, choice, responsibility and courage


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**-Yalom, who was influenced heavily by __, described 4 major categories of: -Yalom's 4 existential realities are: Some existential therapists believe there are no “ultimate” answers to these issues, while some are more positive and optimistic.

May; --existential problems 1) Death, 2) Freedom & Responsibility, 3) Isolation, 4) Meaninglessness (Problems in these areas are the roots of many psychological problems)