Psych Exam 254 cards

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1

Consciousness

a person's subjective experience of the world and mind

2

Circadian Rhythm

a naturally occurring 24-hour cycle

3

Effects of Lack of Sleep

memory problems, tiredness, sensitiveness, excessive aggravation, fatigued, muscle and bone sensitivity

4

Jet Lag

West to East

5

Suprachiasmatic Nucleas

SCN controls the sleep awake schedule

6

Theories of Sleep

Repair and Restoration Theory The Evolution or Energy Conservation Theory

7

Stages of Sleep

1-The EEG moves to frequency patterns even lower than alpha waves (theta waves) 2-Short bursts of activity called sleep spindles and K complexes 3 and 4-Patterns show delta wave activity 5-(REM Sleep) a stage characterized by rapid eye movements and a high level of brain activity

8

REM Stage

A sleep stage characterized by rapid eye movements and a high level of brain activity

9

Effects of Sleep Deprivation

memory problems, aggression, tiredness, fatigue, sensitivity

10

Insomnia

Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep

11

Sleep Apneia

Disorder in which the person stops breathing for brief periods while sleeping

12

Narcolepsy

Disorder in which sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities

13

What stage do dreams occur most in? What is the most common content of dreams? What are the perspectives on why we dream?

REM According to Freud's theory, dreams represent wishes, and some of these wishes are so unacceptable and anxiety producing that the mind can only express them in this disguised form

14

Psychoactive Drugs

A chemical that influences consciousness or behavior by altering the brain's chemical message system

15

Depressants (examples)

Alcohol Toxic Inhalants Barbiturates/Benzodiazepines Substances that reduce the activity of the central nervous system.

16

Stimulants (examples)

Amphetamines MDMA (ecstasy) Nicotine Cocaine Substances that excite the central nervous system, heightening arousal and activity levels.

17

Narcotics (examples)

Opium Heroine Morphine Codeine Methadone Drugs derived from Opium that are capable of relieving pain

18

Hallucinogens (examples)

LSD Mescaline PCP Ketamine Psilocybin Drugs that alter sensation and perception,often causing hallucinations

19

Drug Tolerance

The tendency for larger doses of a drug to be required over time to achieve the same affect.

20

Expectancy Theory

The idea that alcohol effects can be produced by people's expectations of how alcohol will influence them in particular situations

21

Alcohol Myopia

A condition that results when alcohol hampers attention, leading people to respond in simple ways to complex situations

22

Memory

The ability to store and retrieve information over time

23

The Information Processing Model of Memory Sensory Store Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory

A few seconds to less than a minute Minutes, Hours, Days, Years

24

Working Memory

Active maintenance of information in short term storage

25

Sensory Memory

A type of storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less

26

Chunking

Combining small pieces of information into large clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short term memory

27

Retrieval Cue

External information that helps bring stored information to the mind

28

Encoding Specificity Principle

The idea that a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create the specific way in which information was initially encoded

29

Episodic Memory

The collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place (Hippocampus)

30

Semantic Memory

A network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world

31

Transience

Forgetting what occurs with the passage of time

32

Proactive and Retroactive Interference

Pro-Situations in which information learned earlier impairs memory for information acquired later Retro-Situations in which information learned later impairs memory for information acquired earlier

33

Memory Misattribution

Assigning a recollection or idea to the wrong source

34

Blocking

A failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it

35

False Recognition

A feeling of familiarity about something that hasn't been encountered before

36

Suggestibility

The tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections

37

Bias

The distorting influences of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on recollection of previous experiences

38

Learning

Experience that results in a relatively permanent change in state of the learner

39

Observational Learning

A condition in which learning takes place by watching the actions of others

40

Operant Conditioning

A type of learning in which the consequences of an organism's behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future

41

Classical Conditioning

When a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response

42

Acquisition

The phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together

43

Extinction

The gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer presented

44

Spontaneous Recovery

The tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period

45

Generalization

A process in which the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during the acquisition

46

Discrimination

The capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli

47

Punisher

Any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it

48

Shaping

Learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to finalize desired behavior

49

Emotion

A positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of psychological activity

50

James-Lange Theory

A theory which asserts the stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system, which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain.

51

Cannon-Bard Theory

A theory that asserts that a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain

52

Two Factor Theory

A theory which asserts that emotions are inferences about the causes of psychological arousal

53

Facial Feedback Hypothesis

The hypothesis that emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify

54

Universality Hypothesis

The hypothesis that emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone