Psychology test 144 cards

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Nature vs. Nurture:

degree to which genetic influences (nature) or experiential influences or environmental influences (nurture) determine the kind of person you are. No features of life-span development are due exclusively to either nature or nurture; development is a


Longitudinal Studies

observe or test the same individuals (a single cohort) repeatedly at different points in their lives. This approach studies development over time and is the most direct way to watch development occur. These studies have several limitations, such as


Cross-Sectional Research Design

compare groups of people varying in age at one point in time. These studies only uncover age differences and are subject to the cohort effect.



people and objects in an individual’s immediate environment (people closest to the child, i.e. parents and siblings)



form of malnutrition where there is not enough protein in the diet. Symptoms include changes in skin color, decreased muscle mass, diarrhea, failure to gain weight/grow, large belly


Gross Motor Skills

coordinated movements of larger muscles and limbs (i.e. those involved in walking, sitting upright, kicking, etc)


Correlation Coefficient

expresses the strength and direction of a relation between 2 variables. • Positive sign means that larger values of one variable are associated with larger values of the second variable • Negative sign means that larger values of one variable are


Self Awareness

not until 15-17 months do babies recognize themselves in the mirror


Visual Cliff Experiment –

babies placed on glass-covered platform (visual cliff). On one side of platform, checkerboard pattern appeared directly under the glass; on other side, pattern appeared several feet below the glass. Result was that the first side looked shallow and


Secular Trend

trend that is sustained over a long period of time



the biological process where be genetic factors are from one generation to the next. The process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell of organism.


Phenylketonuria (PKU)

A disorder in which babies are born lacking an important liver enzyme • This enzyme converts phenylalanine (protein) into amino acids required for normal body functioning • Without this enzyme, phenylalanine accumulates and produces poisons that ha



Thread like structures in the nuclei of cells that contain genetic material • 23 pairs of chromosomes • 22 pairs of autosomes • 23rd pair is the sex chromosomes, determines the sex of the child


Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

composed of four nucleotide bases that is the biochemical basis of heredity



celled organism created by the process of fertilization, the union of sperm and egg


Monozygotic Twins

result of a single fertilized egg splitting to form two new individuals, also called identical twins


Dizygotic Twins:

result of two separate eggs fertilized by two sperm, also called fraternal twins


Turner Syndrome

chromosomal disorder in females who have only one X chromosome or both chromosomes are present (by two X chromosomes) but one is defective • Marked by short stature (dwarfism) heart abnormalities and underdeveloped sex organs • Frequency – 1 in 2,5


Reaction Range

A genotype is manifested in reaction to the environment where development takes place, so a single genotype can lead to a range of phenotypes • The behavioral consequences of genetic instructions depend on the environment in which those instructions


Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS):

When a healthy baby dies suddenly for no apparent reason • Age susceptibility; 2-4 months


Human Genome Project

completed in 2003. Identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA • Mapped the basic human genetic code • Genetic linkages to both physical health and disease



Unlearned responses triggered by specific stimulation • Rooting Reflex; When a baby’s cheek is stroked it turns its head toward the stroking and opens its mouth (to find its mothers nipple) o reflex ensures that the newborn is well prepared to begi



Best way to ensure that babies’ get the nourishment they need. Human milk contains the proper amount of carbohydrates, fats, protein, vitamins and minerals • Babies who are breastfed are ill less • Less prone to diarrhea and constipation • Make th


Folic Acid

Is important for the baby’s nervous system to develop properly • When mothers do not consume adequate amounts of folic acid, their babies are at risk for spina bifida, a disorder in which the embryo’s neural tube does not close properly during first



An agent that causes abnormal prenatal development • Alcohol, drugs


Low Birth Weight

: Newborns who weigh less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds)


Cesarean Section (C-Section):

Surgical removal of infant from the uterus through an incision made in the mother’s abdomen • Risky procedure due to increased bleeding and greater danger of infection



Prenatal diagnostic technique that uses a syringe to withdraw a sample of amniotic fluid through the mother’s abdomen • Used to provide fetal cells that can be analyzed for pregnancies where a genetic disorder is suspected


Consequences of Rubella:

Mental retardation, damage to eyes, ears and heart



Children tend to develop less rapidly • Children with a history of infant malnutrition have much lower scores on intelligence tests • Malnutrition in infancy causes substantial and potentially irreversible damage to the bran


Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS

Caused when pregnant women who consume large quantities of alcoholic beverages • Children with FAS grow slowly • Have heart problems and misshapen faces o Clinical Features  Small head  Thin upper lip  Short nose  Widely spaced eyes  Ret


Path of Woman’s Egg

Ovary, Fallopian tube uterus



Delivery of an infant whose feet or buttocks appear first


Proximodistal Principle

Growth of parts near the centre of the body before those that are more distant. Arms and legs develop before hands and feet.


Cephalocaudal Principle

Growth from the head to the base of the spine. Head before the rest of the body


Stages of Prenatal Development:

1. The Germinal Stage • Sperm and egg cell unite in one of the fallopian tubes (zygote) • Conception happens • Implantation of zygote into uterus wall 2. The Embryonic Stage • Placenta and umbilical cord develop • Cells begin to differentiate


Long Term Consequences of “Shaken Baby Syndrome”:

• Long term disability • Paralysis • Speech defects • Personality changes and disorders • Lack of developmental progression • Learning and comprehension • Memory retention and attention disorders • Cerebral Palsy • Complete vegetative state


Order of Locomotion Skills:

• 2 months chest up • 4 months sit with support • 7 months sit alone • 10 months creep • 14 months stand alone • 15 months walk alone


Apgar Scale:

Provides a quick, approximate assessment of the newborn’s status by focusing on the body systems needed to sustain life • Each of the 5 vital signs receive a score of 0, 1 or 2


5 signs on the Apger Scale

Presence of reflexes (such as coughing) o Skin tone • The scores are added together o 7 or more indicates a baby in good physical condition o 4-6 indicates the newborn needs special attention o 3 indicates life threatening situation that requir


Correlation Coefficient

An expression of the strength and direction of a relation between two variables • Correlations range from -1.0 to 1.0 • No relation = 0 • Positive relation = between 0 and 1 • Negative relation = between -1 and 0


5 vital signs

5 vital signs o Heartbeat o Breathing o Muscle tone skin tone reflexes