Rome51 cards

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1

Latium

-large plain -fertile -good weather -many places for farming

2

Mediterranean Sea

Etruscans and Greeks traded with other cultures- rich and perfect for lifestyles- Rome located between Etruscans and Greeks surrounded by sea

3

Tiber River

not long journey to Mediterranean Sea- near mouth of Tiber, can cross narrow banks easily transportation, fresh water, access to sea

4

Hills/Mountains

not very high- allow for isolation/defense but allow for political unity- defense- do not separate Rome into city-states (not a total barrier)

5

Apennines

backbone of Italian Peninsula- not total barrier, don't divide into city-states

6

Alps

barrier in north protection later, Hannibal will cross but he will have losses in troops and elephants

7

People that Inhabited the Italian Peninsula

Etruscans, people of Latium, Greeks, early Romans, Gauls (Celts), Carthaginians(Phoenicians)

8

What values of the Romans are revealed in the legend of Romolus and Remus?

-patriarchal society-male heads have full majority -militaristic- military/conquering -good succession -violence in politics (Romolus killed Remus- wanted control) -polytheistic- belief in many gods

9

Republic

form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for leaders

10

Roman Republican Government- Branches and Parts of Branches (Think about how these compare to United States government)

LEGISLATIVE= 2 consuls/dictator EXECUTIVE=Senate, Popular Assembly, Assembly of Tribunes JUDICIAL=PRAETORS

11

Consuls

2 consuls rule Rome -elected yearly -kingly powers -equal power -veto each other -command army

12

Dictator

6 months of service in an emergency

13

Senate

300 Patricians (upper class) -serve for life -propose laws

14

Popular Assembly

approve Senate decisions Plebeians- middle class

15

Assembly of Tribunes

protect Plebeians veto power over laws that hurt lower classes elect tribunes (protect rights of Plebeians)

16

Praetors

judges 1 year term acted as Roman judges

17

Patricians

landowners, rich, nobles, held political power in Senate

18

Plebeians

craftsmen, artisans, small farmers, merchants originally had now power because Popular Assembly was weak

19

Plebeian Reforms (refused to fight in army without reforms)

-Gained political rights to pass laws and elect Consuls, could vote for judges, Assembly of Tribunes, The Twelve Tables, end debt slavery, ban on Patrician/Plebeian marriage ends, veto power over gov actions, 1 consul Plebeian, later could hold offic

20

Cincinattus

Roman general Was dictator for 6 months- defeated enemy and returned to farm can compare to George Washington

21

Twelve Tables

laws carved on Twelve Tablets and hung in Forum- right to protection of law all men =, don't have to defend cause against will, innocent before proven guilty, no marriage btwn. Patricians and Plebeians, etc.

22

Punic Wars -why did they occur -who was involved -how many were there

Rome and Carthage fight over control of Mediterranean Sea 3 wars

23

Strengths/Weaknesses of Rome and Carthage during Punic Wars

Rome=Italian Peninsula- conquereed Greeks,Etruscans-strong army-dominated Italy-very loyal citizens Carthage=North Africa-commercial empire-powerful navy-Phoenicians(lived on Mediterranean)

24

1st Punic War

Rome wins control of Sicily mostly luck 23 years 264-241 BC

25

2nd Punic War

Hannibal invades Italy- over the Alps- ravages Italy for 13 yrs. Won greatest victory at Cannae but Romans regrouped and prevented him from capturing Rome Scipio Africanus invades Carthage- defeats Hannibal at Zama

26

3rd Punic War

Cato- "Carthage must be destroyed" Siege of Carthage- Carthage is destroyed

27

Before the Punic Wars

Roman Republic's Power Expands Rome was sacked by Gauls Over time- conquered Latins and Etruscans Romans conquered Greeks to south Rome conquered Po Valley- rule entire Italian Peninsula

28

Results of the Punic Wars

Rome dominates Mediterranean Conquered Greece Asia Minor Roman laws exdtend to their foreign lands

29

Causes of Decline of Roman Republic

Gap between rich and poor (wealthy generals vs. proletariat) Spartacus=leader of slaves in war fighting for freedom Failure of Gracchi Brothers to achieve reform (redistribute land)- killed, generals fight (Marius vs Sulla),Rise of Julius Caesar

30

Julius Caesar Background

skills in war, politics, writing, leadership-born to an old Roman family (Patrician)-gained experience in military in Asia Minor-experienced gov. in Spain-well educated-reformer-high priest-consul

31

1st Triumvirate (59 BC)

Caesar, Crassus, Pompey Crassus the Rich=wealthy political leader Pompey=brilliant general 10 years rule Rome

32

How Julius Caesar Became Dictator

during civil war=had experienced, tough army-defeated army in Africa and won victory over sons of Pompey in Spain-named dictator for life-Senate asked him to return without army-refused-crossed Rubicon and defied Senate-defeats Pompey and returns to

33

Caesar's Conquests in Gaul

made governor of Gaul-took command of Roman armies there-took several yrs but conquered all of Gaul and part of Britain-won loyalty and devotion-success made him popular-Pompey feared Caesar's ambitions-rich-building projects,jobs-increase popularity

34

How Julius Caesar Ruled Once in Power

expands Roman citizenship, Senate- 900- fills with followers- orders landowners 1/3 free labor- Public Works Programs=jobs, founds colonies and land for poor, solar calendar

35

Why Caesar was Assassinated

Ides of March (March 15, 44 BC) assassinated by senators who feared he would be king

36

Second Triumvirate

Octavian Augustus Caesar (first emperor of Rome), Mark Antony, Marcus Lepidus

37

Pax Romana

"Roman Peace"- 207 years - peace reigned throughout empire except for some fighting with tribes on borders- empire included more than 3 million square miles

38

Pax Romana Art

Greco-Roman Culture (mix of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman culture) Sculpture from Greels- Romans had realism (real figures) Bas Reliefs- images project from a flat background Mosaics( glass pieces that make pic) Frescoes (murals on walls)

39

Pax Romana Learning and Literature

From Greeks-Philosophy (Stoicism- philosophy of Zeno- encouraged virtue, duty, moderation, endurance) Myths,copy epic:The Aenid by Virgil, Alphabet (Ovid-metamorphasis-myths, Livy,Tacitus=historians)

40

Pax Romana Architecture and Engineering

columns from Greeks Aqueducts-bring water into cities/towns-lifted by high arches arch,vault,dome=Etruscans concrete Key Buildings=Colosseum,Pantheon,Circus Maximus,roads

41

Decline of Roman Empire Political

Gov't=oppressive Corruption in gov. Losing loyalty of people Power struggles btwn generals+emperors Succession Problems Bureaucracy=inefficient heavy burden(tax)

42

Decline of Roman Empire Economic

Prosperity will end loss of gold and silver inflation-rise in prices trade decrease because barbarians

43

Decline of Roman Empire Social

Rise of Christianity Government persecuted Christians

44

Decline of Roman Empire Military

barbarians fight on borders mercenaries-paid Germanic tribes Rome Empire is Big-difficult to defend

45

Attempts at Reform Fail: Diocletian 284 AD

Restore order, divide Rome's Empire 2 parts=East(Greece), West(Rome) Increase prestige of Rome require Roman gods to be worshipped, persecute Christians doubled size of army-better defense, jobs for poor

46

Attempts at Reform Fail: Constantine 311 AD

Continue Diocletian's reforms End persecution of Christians Edict of Milan Capital of Empire-Byzantium-Constantinople

47

Octavian- 1st Roman Emperor

Grand nephew of Caesar(adopted as son)-defeated Caesar's enemies(Antony+Lepidus),defeated Antony+Cleopatra-declared himself Augustus Caesar-passed reforms

48

Reforms of Octavian

improved trade, roads, building projects,military strength,civil service (gov jobs)- established stability and peace that would last for 207 yrs PAX ROMANA

49

Germanic Tribes

Ostrogoths Vandals Visigoths Franks Angles Saxons Lombards Burgundians

50

What were bariarians like?

warlike illiterate fight each other law-? pagan Germanic languages

51

Who were the Huns? Why were these tribes able to over-run the Roman Empire?

Attila the Hun fierce nomadic Asian tribe pushing west- forcing Germanic tribes west people didn't resist them,fed up with Roman Empire,Roman army weak