Shari Sociology II25 cards

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1

Consumerism

A specific set of beliefs, values and ways of acting that are based on the idea that consuming goods is both natural and beneficial and the idea that EVERYTHING can be sold and can be bought with money

2

Consumption

The act of consuming (using up) goods and services having an exchangeable value.

3

Commodity

an object sold for money in a capitalist market

4

Collective Behavior

An event during which people engage in “unusual” and/or unexpected behavior.

5

Social Movements

collective efforts by groups of relatively powerless people united by shared beliefs and common purpose seeking to effect change (or resist change) in some major aspect or aspects of society.

6

Transformative/Revolutionary Movements

Aimed at far-reaching, cataclysmic, and often violent change in the society of which they are a part. Most threatening to existing social order, authority, and power

7

Reformative Movements

Aimed at altering only some aspects of the existing social order. Emphasis on reforming existing laws, policies or attitudes in some specific way.

8

Redemptive Movements

Aimed at rescuing people from ways of life seen as corrupting. Target is narrow and focused.

9

Alternative Movements

Aimed at securing partial change in individuals.Not concerned with issues or topics outside their stated focus

10

New Social Movements

A set of social movements that have arisen in western societies since the 1960s in response to the c

11

Civil Society

The realm of activity that lies between the state and the market, including the family, schools, community associations, and noneconomic institutions

12

Economic Interdependence

The fact that in the division of labor, individuals depend on others to produce many or most of the good they need to sustain their lives

13

Alienation

For Marx, describes the industrial production within capitalist settings where workers have little or no control over their work

14

Post-Fordism

A general term sed to describe the transition from mass industrial production to more flexible forms of production favoring innovation and aimed at meeting market demands for customized products

15

Portfolio Workers

A worker who possess a diversity of skills or qualifications and is therefore able to move easily from job to job

16

Global Inequality

systematic differences in wealth and power between countries

17

Measures of Global Inequality

per-person gross national income, a country's yearly output of goods and services per person

18

Modernization Theory/Market Oriented

Argues that low income societies develop economically only if they give up their traditional ways and adopt modern economic institutions, technologies, and cultural values that emphasize savings and productive investment

19

Neoliberalism

argues that free-market forces, achieved by minimizing government restrictions of business, provide the only route to economic growth

20

Dependency Theory

MArxist theories of economic development arguing that the poverty of low-income countries stems directly from their exploitation by wealth countries and the multinational corporations that are based in wealthy countries

21

World-systems Theory

Argues that the world capitalist economic system of countries must be understood as a single unit

22

Global Commodity Chains

Worldwide networks of labor and production processes yielding a finished product

23

State-centered Theory

Development theories that argue appropriate government policies do not interfere with economic development, but rather can play a key role in bringing it about

24

Tracking

Dividing students into groups that receive different instruction on the basis of assumed similarities in ability or attainment

25

Hyper-reality

Argues that as a result of the spread of electronic communication there is no longer a reality television allows us to see. Instead, what we take to be reality is structured by communication itself