Sociology Test 248 cards

Tagged as: sociology, criminal justic, law, education, medical, medicine, nursing, biology, business

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1

Achieved Status

A social position that a person attains largely through his of her own efforts

2

Ascribed Status

A social position assigned to a person by society without regard for the persons unique talents or characteristics.

3

Master Status

A status that dominates others and thereby determines a persons general position in society.

4

Role Conflict

The situation that occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person.

5

Role Strain

The difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations.

6

Goal Displacement

Overzealous conformity to official regulations of a bureaucracy.

7

Trained Incapacity

The tendency of workers in a bureaucracy to become so specialized that they develop blind spots and fail to notice obvious problems.

8

Class Consciousness

In Karl Marx view a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and the need for collective political action to bring about social change.

9

False Consciousness

a term used by Karl Marx to describe an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect that objective position.

10

Social Inequity

A condition in which members of society have differing amouts of wealth, prestige, or power.

11

Group

Any number of people with similar norms, values and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis.

12

Aggregate

is a collection of items that are gathered together to form a total quantity.

13

In-Group

any group or category to which people feel they belong.

14

Out-Group

Any group or category to which people do not feel that they belong.

15

Underclass

The long term poor who lack training and skills

16

Deviance

Behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.

17

Crime

A violation of criminal law for which some governmental authority applies formal penalties.

18

Poverty

is the lack of basic human needs, such as clean and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter, because of the inability to afford them.[

19

Castes

A hereditary rank usually religiously dictated that tends to be fixed and immobile

20

Stratification

A structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuated unequal economic

21

Social interaction

The ways to which people respond to one another.

22

Social Structure

The way in which a society is organized into predictable relationship

23

Negotiated Order

is an approach in sociology that is interested how meaning is created and maintained in organizations. It has a particular focus on human interactions.

24

Victimless crime

A term used by sociologists to describe the willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal goods and services.

25

Sociobiology

is a field of scientific study of behavior based on the assumption that social behavior has resulted from evolution and attempts to explain and examine social behavior within that context.

26

Primary Group

A small group characterized by intimate face to face association themselves and their behavior.

27

reference Group

Any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their behavior.

28

life Chances

The oppertunities people have to provide themselves with material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable life experiences.

29

bourgeoisie

Karl Marx's term for the capitalist classes, compromising the owners of the means of production.

30

Proletariat

Karl Marx's term for the working class in the capitalist society.

31

Social Network

A series of social relationships that links a person directly to others and through them indirectly to still more people.

32

Social institution

An organized pattern of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs

33

formal social control

Social control that is carried out by authrized agents, such as police officers, judges, school administrators, and employers.

34

formal organization

A group designed for a special purpose and structured for maximum efficiency.

35

secondary group

A formal impersonal group in which there is a little social intimacy or mutual understanding.

36

voluntary association

a group of individuals who enter into an agreement as volunteers to form a body

37

horizontal mobility

The movement of an individual from one social position to another of the same rank.

38

vertical mobility

The movement of an individual from one social position to another of a different rank.

39

structural mobility

social mobility refers to the degree to which an individual's or group's status is able to change in terms of position in the social hierarchy.

40

Gemeinschschaft

is an association in which individuals are oriented to the large association as much if not more than to their own self interest.

41

Gesellschaft

describes associations in which, for the individual, the larger association never takes on more importance than the individual's self interest, and lack the same level of shared mores.

42

White collar crime

Illegal acts committed by affluent "respectable" individuals in the course of business activities.

43

Sanctions

A penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm.

44

social control

The techniques and strategies for preventing deviant

45

social class

Social classes are economic or cultural arrangements of groups in society.

46

social mobility

movement of individuals or groups from one position in a societies stratification systems to another.

47

class system

A social ranking based on primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social change.

48

closed system

A social system in which there is little or no possibility of individual social mobility.