Sociology40 cards

Tagged as: sociology, nursing, education, finance, language, act

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1

Social Differentiation

The process by which different statuses develop in any group, organization, or society

2

Social Stratification

A relatively fixed, hierarchical arrangement in society by which groups have different access to resources, power, and perceived social worth.

3

Wealth

The monetary value of everything one owns, minus debt

4

Income

The amount of money brought into a household from various sources during a given period

5

Social Mobility

Movement of individuals or groups from one positon in a society’s stratification system to another

6

Open System

position of each individual influenced by the person’s achieved position (class)

7

Closed System

allows little or no possibility of moving up (caste)

8

Horizontal Mobility

movement within same range of prestige

9

Vertical Mobility

movement from one position to another of a different rank

10

Intergenerational Mobility

changes in the social position of children relative to their parents

11

Intragenerational Mobility

social position changes within person’s adult life

12

Life Chances

Opportunities to provide material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable life experience

13

Race

a system of classification used to assign individuals and groups to categories of hierarchical difference

14

Ethnicity

refers to cultural practices and outlooks given to a community/people that have emerged historically and set people apart

15

Racialization

The process by which social, economic and political forces have determined the classification, content, and importance of racial categories, which in turn shape their meaning

16

Hypodescent

the practice of determining the lineage of a child of mixed ancestry by assigning the child the race of his or her more socially subordinate parent

17

Hyperdescent

the practices of determining the lineage of a child of mixed ancestry by assigning the child the race of his more socially dominant parent.

18

Sex

Biological differences between males & females

19

Gender

The culturally define ways of acting as a male or a female that become part of an individual’s personal sense of self

20

Gender Inequalities

the inequality between men and women in terms of wealth, income, power, and status

21

Prejudice

the process of “pre-judging” " a particular person, place or thing for the way it acts, looks, or even who or what it is involved with

22

Majority Group

a dominant group whose members are significantly more powerful or possess greater power or control over valued resources

23

Minority Group

a subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over valued resources than members of the dominant group.

24

Stereotypes

ideas held about members of particular groups, based solely on membership in that group.

25

Gender Typing

occurs when women hold occupations of lower status and pay, and men hold jobs of higher status and pay.

26

Institutional Discrimination

Denial of opportunities and equal rights that results from normal operations of a society

27

Glass Ceiling

refers to situations where the advancement of a person within the hierarchy of an organization is limited.

28

Glass Escalator

refers to the rapid promotion of men over women, especially into management, in female-dominated fields.

29

Gender Stereotypes

Oversimplified belief that men and women possess different personality traits that lead them to different experiences and behaviors

30

Work

performing tasks to produce goods and perform services that cater to human needs, in exchange for a regular wage

31

Taylorism

divides work into simple tasks that can be timed and organized.

32

Fordism

extended the principles of scientific management to mass production tied to mass markets

33

Knowledge Economy

An economy in which ideas, information & forms of knowledge underpin innovation & economic growth.

34

Family

set of people related by blood, marriage, or some other agreed-upon relationship, or adoption who share primary responsibility for reproduction and caring for members of society

35

Education

The process by which a society transmits knowledge, values, norms and ideologies

36

Formal Curriculum

The explicitly stated goals and objectives of education.

37

Hidden Curriculum

The many things which are taught in school besides the formal subject matter.

38

Cultural Capital

Education distributes and legitimates certain forms of: • knowledge • language • practices • values • ways of talking • acting, • moving, • dressing, • socializing.

39

Media Imperialism

The ability of the United States to disseminate Western values through the dominance of Hollywood and American television, and through the agenda of Western news organizations.

40

Globalization

the act of globalizing, or extending to other or all parts of the world; worldwide integration and development