W.H Final47 cards

Tagged as: capitals, education, language, algebra, math, religion, criminal justic, law, german, italian, accounting, business, history, english, french, art, spanish, finance, earth

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1

Origin of the middle ages

rome falls(classical heritage of Rome division of trade city downfall pop. shifts decline of learning no common language

2

Reasons for decline of learning

germanic ppl who invade are illerterate

3

How did the secular power of the church come to be?

Gregory I became pope expanded papacy authority used funding for armies, repair and help poor

4

Charlemagnes accomplishments

extends frankish rule spread christianity limit noble authority

5

Fuedal system(social/ political)

a poli. system based on holding all land in fief and relationship between lord and vassal

6

Manor system

set of rights and obligations b/w lord and serf lord gave serf housing, farmland and protection serfs cared for lord's land, animals and other chores serfs owed taxes to lord

7

Serfs and the Church

Believed god determined place in life + accepted it from chruch teachings

8

canon law

church law(marriage+religious practices)

9

Holy Roman Empire

the german-italian empire created by Otto

10

lay investiture

ceremony where kings + nobles appointed church officials

11

tithe

church tax

12

excommunition

denies right to be a member of a church

13

problems in the church

preists illiterate shady popes; bishops and abbots power hungry village priests married bishops selled positions in church lay investiture

14

Goals of the crusades

Get Palestine+ reunify Christendom Get rid of rowdy knights young ppl get role in society and prop.

15

Effects of Crusade

- Women had chance to manage estate affairs -euro. traders expanded trade b/w europe and s.e asia - later crusades lessened pope's power - muslim hatred towards christians

16

manor

lord's estate

17

guilds

organ. of individ. in same business/ occupation that work 2 improve economic and social conditions

18

commercial revolution

- availability of goods increased - made letters of credit and bills of exchange

19

growth of towns

when trade grew, ppl came to towns

20

magna carta

document stating rights of citizen and also limited king's power

21

Parliament

U.K's national legislature made up on house of lords and house of commons

22

plague

an epidemic that affected, Asia, North Africa and Europe and also teared apart society

23

The longbow

- extincted medieval knight warfare - Allowed english to win at battles of Crecy, Poiters and Agincourt

24

Hundred year War

The war for claiming the french throne started by Edward the III, French won

25

inquisition

A court made King Isabella and Ferdinand held by the church to supress heresy

26

Renaissance

revival of art and learning

27

Renaissance Man

a man who excelled in many fields (swordsman, artist)

28

Elizabeth I

Daughter of Ann Boleyn and Henry VIII restores protestantism and mades anglican chruch - allow prot. priests 2 marry and feliver english sermons - cath. could have rich robes and revised services

29

Humanism

a movement of intellectualism forcuing on human potential + achievements

30

johann Gutenberg

developed printing press - made possible to produce books quickly+ cheaply - books cheap so more ppl could buy

31

Martin Luther

a monk/ teacher that wanted to be good and not lead revolution

32

Teachings

- Salvation won only by faith in gods gift of forgiveness - church teachings from bible - All ppl w/ faith equal, preists not need 2 interpret Bible

33

95 theses

formal statements luther posted on church door telling scholars to debate him

34

Henry VIII

Father of Edward IV, Mary and Elizabeth - turn england to protestantism when wanted to divorce wife and marry new one.

35

protestants

christians who go to non- catholic churches

36

John Calvin and Predestination

wrote book about protestant thoelogy stated that god already predetermined who will be saved

37

Jesuits and Ignatius of Loyola

leader of Jesuits who wrote book about daily planning of meditation, prayer+study Pope gave followers society of jesus (jesuits)

38

indulgences

a penalty a priest imposed for sins

39

conquistadors

spanish explorers who tok part in age of exploration

40

mercantilism

an economic theory in which they believed thatyour wealth depended on how powerful you were

41

capitalism

an economic system of private ownership and resource investment

42

columbian exchange

the global transfer of food, plants and animals during american colonization

43

monopoly

A groups exclusive control over production/distribution of specific gods

44

portugal

had strong support for exploration from Prince Henry(set up nav. school) Bart Dias reached tip of Africa Vasco Da Gama found sea route to Asia

45

Spain

many conquistadors found much gold colonized americas and used natives to rach farm and mine

46

Divine Right

monarchs are gods rep. on earth

47

Joint Stock Company

investors buy companies share of stock - wealthy combine wealth for common purpose -investors only lose fracture of money, not all